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α-Glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory potential of main compounds and drug candidates from Elaeagnus rhamnoides (L.) A. Nelson


Elaeagnus rhamnoides (L.) A. Nelson (synonym: Hippophae rhamnoides) (Elaeagnaceae) is an important plant with multiple usages. The current study was laid on discovering the phytochemical profiling of E. rhamnoides leaves through antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects. The ethyl acetate (IC50 = 46.89 ± 2.18 µg/mL) and n-butanol extracts (IC50 = 51.33 ± 2.53 µg/mL) possessed potent inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase enzyme as compared with standard compound, acarbose (IC50 = 4212.62 ± 130.00 µg/mL). Seven compounds were isolated, and their structure was determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR. Isorhamnetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (1), isorhamnetin-7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (2), isoquercitrin (3), narcissin (4), isorhamnetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (5), arjunglucoside I (6), and casuarinin (7) were isolated from n-butanol extract. All isolated compounds, especially arjunglucoside I (IC50 = 1074 ± 32 µM) and casuarinin (IC50 = 21 ± 2 µM), showed higher α-glucosidase inhibitory activity than acarbose (IC50 = 6561 ± 207 µM). Casuarinin displayed powerful scavenging activity against to both ABTS radical with 2 ± 1 µM IC50 value and DPPH radical with 14 ± 1 µM IC50 value while IC50 values of trolox and α-tocopherol were 31 ± 1 and 50 ± 1 µM against ABTS radical, and 67 ± 2 and 95 ± 3 µM against DPPH radical, respectively. Arjunglucoside I was isolated for first time from this species and Elaeagnaceae family. Preparations prepared from E. rhamnoides leaf extracts standardized via casuarinin and arjunglucoside I could be potential phytotherapeutics for diabetes mellitus.

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This work was financially supported by Ataturk University (Nos. TSA-2018-6447 and THD-2018-6912). The authors would like to thank Forest Engineer, MSc Mehmet ÖNAL, the Eastern Anatolia Forestry Research Institute for identification of the plant.

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Correspondence to Hafize Yuca.

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Supplementary Information

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.


The concentration–response curves obtained from all the assays of standard compounds, extracts, and isolated compounds are presented as supplementary material 1 (SM-1) (PDF 1183 KB)


All of 1D-NMR and 2D-NMR spectra and 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6), 13C‑NMR (DMSO-d6) data of the isolated compounds are presented as supplementary material 2 (SM-2) (PDF 1812 KB)

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Yuca, H., Özbek, H., Demirezer, L.Ö. et al. α-Glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory potential of main compounds and drug candidates from Elaeagnus rhamnoides (L.) A. Nelson. Chem. Pap. (2021).

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  • Elaeagnus rhamnoides
  • Elaeagnaceae
  • α-Glucosidase inhibition
  • Antioxidant activity
  • Arjunglucoside I
  • Casuarinin