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Reusable ionic liquid functionalized magnetic graphene oxide nanocomposite as magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction sorbent to preconcentrate polychlorinated biphenyls in seafood

Abstract

Facile separation and enrichment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in foods has been a constantly pursuing goal in food analytical chemistry. Here, a reusable ionic liquid functionalized magnetic graphene oxide nanocomposite (3D-IL@mGO), synthesized based on our previous study, was used as adsorbent for the preconcentration of PCBs in the magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction (Mag-dSPE) procedure. Comparing the proposed 3D-IL@mGO Mag-dSPE procedure with carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes d-SPE method, the 3D-IL@mGO nanocomposite could be reused at least 16 times for the extraction of 11 PCBs from seafood samples without significant sacrifice of the extraction efficiency, which is more economical. Under the optimal conditions, a simple analytical method based on Mag-dSPE and gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC–MS/MS) has been developed for the fast determination of 11 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in seafood. The LODs for 11 PCBs were in the range of 0.012 μg·kg−1–0.054 μg·kg−1. The recoveries were ranged from 80.0% to 112% with associated intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) in the range of 2.7%-6.2% and 3.6%-7.3%, respectively. Furthermore, the proposed method was applied for the analysis of 11 PCBs in 240 seafood samples. The results showed that PCB 101, PCB 153 and PCB 204 were found in 18 seafood samples with concentrations ranged from 0.862 μg·kg−1 to 12.1 μg·kg−1. It is, therefore, concluded that the Mag-dSPE procedure combined with GC–MS/MS demonstrated the applicability for food-safety risk monitoring of PCBs in seafood samples.

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Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the National Science Foundation of China (No. 21974121), Zhejiang Provincial Program for Public Welfare of Technology Application Research Plan (No. LGC20H300002), Zhejiang Provincial Key Research and Development Project (No. 2021C03176), Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation (No. LY20B070007), State Administration for Market Regulation Project (2020YJ014) and Key Laboratory of Global Change and Marine-Atmospheric Chemistry, SOA (No. GCMAC1901). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Yan Zhu or Yong-Gang Zhao.

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Sheng, ZH., Zhan, PP., Ye, ML. et al. Reusable ionic liquid functionalized magnetic graphene oxide nanocomposite as magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction sorbent to preconcentrate polychlorinated biphenyls in seafood. Chem. Pap. 75, 5463–5470 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11696-021-01739-z

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Keywords

  • Polychlorinated biphenyls
  • Magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction
  • Ionic liquid functionalized magnetic graphene oxide nanocomposite
  • Reusable
  • Seafood