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Kinetic modeling of gasification reactions of CO2 and H2O for Thar lignite char at elevated pressures

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Gasification reactions of Thar coal chars with CO2 and H2O have been investigated, using pressurized thermo-gravimetric analyzer (PTGA). A quartz fixed-bed reactor was used to prepare coal char at 900 °C with a nitrogen environment. Dynamic heating segments were maintained with a constant heating rate during all experiments. The temperature was raised from room temperature to 1000 °C, at different pressures 1 atm., 5 atm., and 10 atm. using pure reacting gases (CO2 and H2O). The weight loss data obtained from PTGA results were used to study the kinetic behavior of Thar lignite char for gasification reactions with CO2 and H2O as gasifying reacting species. It was observed that gasification reactions of char with reacting gas CO2 and char with reacting gas steam (H2O) initiated at 750 °C and completed after reaching 950 °C, at atmospheric pressure, but the occurrence of reactions was slightly delayed at high pressures. Volumetric Model and Grain Model were used to develop a kinetic model for Thar lignite. The direct plot and integral methods were used to calculate Arrhenius parameters such as the pre-exponential factor (A) and activation energy (E). An increase of A and E was also observed in increasing pressures. The activation energy (E) was investigated from 244.64 to 317.6 kJ/mol at atmospheric pressure; whereas, it is lying in the range of 286.13–356.67 kJ/mol at a pressure of 10 atm.

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CO2 :

Carbon dioxide




Pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer





A :

Pre-exponential factor

E :

Activation energy




Volumetric Model


Grain Model


Random Pore Model


Modified Volumetric Model


American Society for Testing and Materials



k :

Apparent rate of reaction


Weight of sample

T :


C g :

Concentration of reacting gas

β :

Linear relationship ***of time and temperature under constant heating rate


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This research is jointly funded by the British Council and Higher Education Commission of Pakistan in the INSPIRE research project. Mehran University of Engineering and Technology Pakistan and the Shenyang Aerospace University of China jointly conducted this project with mutual collaboration. In this research, the contribution of Chinese professors is highly acknowledged due to their technical support and experimental facilities provided for this study.

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Correspondence to Ghulamullah Maitlo.

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Unar, I.N., Pathan, A.G., Mahar, R.B. et al. Kinetic modeling of gasification reactions of CO2 and H2O for Thar lignite char at elevated pressures. Chem. Pap. 75, 169–190 (2021).

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