Chemical Papers

, Volume 73, Issue 4, pp 891–899 | Cite as

Oxalic acid assisted synthesis of the gadolinium-doped ceria oxide-ion conductor as electrolyte for the solid oxide fuel cells

  • Giedrė Gaidamavičienė
  • Brigita Abakevičienė
  • Artūras ŽalgaEmail author
Original Paper


The aim of this paper is to investigate the thermal behavior of as-prepared Gd–Ce–O acetate–oxalate (GCO–AO) precursors and their affinity to the decomposition processes of the starting materials by means of thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetric analyses (TG/DTG/DTA). Moreover, the influence of the temperature, heating atmosphere, and heat treatment time on both the morphology and crystal structure of the Ce–Gd–O gel precursor were additionally investigated in detail using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR). The obtained TG/DTG/DTA results revealed that the formation of the gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) ceramic was closely related to the thermal decomposition processes of the initial compounds: gadolinium (III) acetate and cerium (IV) acetate. The powder XRD patterns of the heat-treated GCO–AO sample revealed that the crystallization process for the GDC ceramic starts at 1173 K, whereas the temperature and heat treatment time significantly affected on the surface morphology and the size of the obtained particles. Besides, the spectra of FT–IR analysis showed that the vibration modes of the oxygen–metal–oxygen (O–M–O) in GDC ceramic heat-treated at different temperatures were equivalent, although the sample heat-treated at 1273 K demonstrated a completely different optical behavior. In that case a strong absorption outspread in the region from 1000 to 500 cm−1 was observed, which could be attributed to the initial formation of the nano-sized spherical particles in size of about 50–100 nm.


Co-precipitation synthesis Sol–gel processing Thermal analysis X-ray diffraction 



The research leading to these results has received funding from Lithuanian–French Programme “Gilibert” under project agreement no S-LZ-17-7.


  1. Accardo G, Ferone C, Cioffi R, Frattini D, Spiridigliozzi L, Dell’Agli G (2016) Electrical and microstructural characterization of ceramic gadolinium-doped ceria electrolytes for ITSOFCs by sol–gel route. J Appl Biomater Funct Mater 14:E35–E41. Google Scholar
  2. Accardo G, Frattini D, Ham HC, Han JH, Yoon SP (2018) Improved microstructure and sintering temperature of bismuth nano-doped GDC powders synthesized by direct sol–gel combustion (vol 44, pg 3800). Ceram Int 44:10020. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arabaci A (2015) Effect of Sm and Gd dopants on structural characteristics and ionic conductivity of ceria. Ceram Int 41:5836–5842. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arabaci A, Oksuzomer MF (2012) Preparation and characterization of 10 mol% Gd doped CeO2 (GDC) electrolyte for SOFC applications. Ceram Int 38:6509–6515. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Batista RM, Muccillo ENS (2016) Dilatometry analysis of the sintering process of nanostructured gadolinia-doped ceria. J Therm Anal Calorim 126:1007–1013. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Batista RM, Muccillo ENS (2018) Analysis of the sintering process in gadolinia-doped ceria by thermodilatometry and correlation with microstructure evolution. J Therm Anal Calorim 132:851–857. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Braziulis G, Janulevicius G, Stankeviciute R, Zalga A (2014) Aqueous sol–gel synthesis and thermoanalytical study of the alkaline earth molybdate precursors. J Therm Anal Calorim 118:613–621. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chavan AU, Jadhav LD, Jamale AP, Patil SP, Bhosale CH, Bharadwaj SR, Patil PS (2012) Effect of variation of NiO on properties of NiO/GDC (gadolinium doped ceria) nano-composites. Ceram Int 38:3191–3196. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Choolaei M, Cai Q, Slade RCT, Horri BA (2018) Nanocrystalline gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) for SOFCs by an environmentally-friendly single step method. Ceram Int 44:13286–13292. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chourashiya MG, Jadhav LD (2011) Synthesis and characterization of 10%Gd doped ceria (GDC) deposited on NiO-GDC anode-grade-ceramic substrate as half cell for IT-SOFC. Int J Hydrog Energy 36:14984–14995. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Daza PCC, Meneses RAM, Rodrigues ACM, da Silva CRM (2018) Ionic conductivities and high resolution microscopic evaluation of grain and grain boundaries of cerium-based codoped solid electrolytes. Ceram Int 44:13699–13705. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. De Marco V, Iannaci A, Lo Faro M, Sglavo VM (2017) Influence of copper-based anode composition on intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells performance. Fuel Cells 17:708–715. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Diaz-Parralejo A, Cuerda-Correa EM, Macias-Garcia A, Diaz-Diez MA, Sanchez-Gonzalez J (2011) Tailoring the properties of Yttria-stabilized zirconia powders prepared by the sol–gel method for potential use in solid oxide fuel cells. Fuel Process Technol 92:183–189. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Escudero M, Fuerte A (2017) Performance of ceria-electrolyte solid oxide fuel cell using simulated biogas mixtures as fuel. Adv Energy Power 5:20–26. Google Scholar
  15. Fenech J, Dalbin M, Barnabe A, Bonino JP, Ansart F (2011) Sol–gel processing and characterization of (RE-Y)-zirconia powders for thermal barrier coatings. Powder Technol 208:480–487. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Firmino H, Araújo A, Dutra R, Nascimento R, Rajesh S, Macedo D (2017) One-step synthesis and microstructure of CuO-SDC composites. Cerâmica 63:52–57. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gerstl M, Nenning A, Iskandar R, Rojek-Wockner V, Bram M, Hutter H, Opitz AK (2016) The sulphur poisoning behaviour of gadolinia doped ceria model systems in reducing atmospheres. Materials 9:649. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hong YS, Kim SH, Kim WJ, Yoon HH (2011) Fabrication and characterization GDC electrolyte thin films by e-beam technique for IT-SOFC. Curr Appl Phys 11:S163–S168. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kivi I, Aruväli J, Kirsimäe K, Möller P, Heinsaar A, Nurk G, Lust E (2017) Influence of humidified synthetic air feeding conditions on the stoichiometry of (La1-x Srx)yCoO3 − δ and La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 − δ cathodes under applied potential measured by electrochemical in situ high-temperature XRD method. J Solid State Electrochem 21:361–369. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Le MV, Tsai DS, Nguyen TA (2018) BSCF/GDC as a refined cathode to the single-chamber solid oxide fuel cell based on a LAMOX electrolyte. Ceram Int 44:1726–1730. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liang B et al (2011) Effect of the adding ferrum in nickel/GDC anode-supported solid-oxide fuel cell in the intermediate temperature. Int J Hydrog Energy 36:10975–10980. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Milcarek RJ, Wang K, Garrett MJ, Ahn J (2016) Performance investigation of dual layer Yttria-stabilized Zirconia–Samaria-doped ceria electrolyte for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells. J Electrochem Energy Convers Storage 13:011002. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Molero-Sanchez B, Moran E, Birss V (2017) Rapid and low-energy fabrication of symmetrical solid oxide cells by microwave methods Acs. Omega 2:3716–3723. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Morales M, Roa JJ, Capdevila XG, Segarra M, Pinol S (2010) Mechanical properties at the nanometer scale of GDC and YSZ used as electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells. Acta Mater 58:2504–2509. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Myung JH, Ko HJ, Lee JJ, Lee JH, Hyun SH (2012) Synthesis and characterization of NiO/GDC-GDC dual nano-composite powders for high-performance methane fueled solid oxide fuel cells. Int J Hydrog Energy 37:11351–11359. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nurk G et al (2016) Mobility of Sr in gadolinia doped ceria barrier layers prepared using spray pyrolysis, pulsed laser deposition and magnetron sputtering methods. J Electrochem Soc 163:F88–F96. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pezeshkpour S, Abdullah AZ, Salamatinia B, Horri BA (2017) Ionic-gelation synthesis of gadolinium doped ceria (Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.90) nanocomposite powder using sodium-alginate. Ceram Int 43:7123–7135. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Priya NSC, Sandhya K, Rajendran DN (2018) Study on electrical conductivity and activation energy of doped ceria nanostructures. Electrochem Energy Technol 3:49–53. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pumiglia D et al (2017) Aggravated test of intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells fed with tar-contaminated syngas. J Power Sources 340:150–159. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Su SC, Zhang WX, Wu J, Zhou CC (2017) Effect of component thickness and anode composition on the residual stress of micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell. Int J Electrochem Sci 12:9121–9130. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tao YK, Shao J, Wang JX, Wang WG (2009) Morphology control of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 nanopowder synthesized by sol–gel method using PVP as a surfactant. J Alloy Compd 484:729–733. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Zalga A, Moravec Z, Pinkas J, Kareiva A (2011) On the sol–gel preparation of different tungstates and molybdates. J Therm Anal Calorim 105:3–11. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zalga A et al (2018) Aqueous sol–gel synthesis, thermoanalytical study and electrical properties of La2Mo2O9. J Therm Anal Calorim 132:1499–1511. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zarkov A et al (2016) Synthesis of nanocrystalline gadolinium doped ceria via sol–gel combustion and sol–gel synthesis routes. Ceram Int 42:3972–3988. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zarkov A, Mikoliunaite L, Katelnikovas A, Tautkus S, Kareiva A (2018) Preparation by different methods and analytical characterization of gadolinium-doped ceria. Chem Pap 72:129–138. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zhou XL, Ma JJ, Deng FJ, Meng GY, Liu XQ (2006) Preparation and properties of ceramic interconnecting materials, La0.7Ca0.3CrO3-delta doped with GDC for IT-SOFCs. J Power Sources 162:279–285. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zhu B, Ma Y, Wang XD, Raza R, Qin HY, Fan LD (2011) A fuel cell with a single component functioning simultaneously as the electrodes and electrolyte. Electrochem Commun 13:225–227. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giedrė Gaidamavičienė
    • 1
  • Brigita Abakevičienė
    • 2
  • Artūras Žalga
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Applied Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and GeosciencesVilnius UniversityVilniusLithuania
  2. 2.Institute of Materials Science, Kaunas University of TechnologyKaunasLithuania

Personalised recommendations