Skip to main content

Design of novel order mesostructured superacid catalyst from rice husk for the conversion of linseed oil to methyl esters


A novel ordered mesoporous catalyst was prepared from rice husk (MRH catalyst) through condensation–evaporation method in alkaline media. The process used cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a structure-directing agent (template) and sulfonated biochar obtained from partial rice husk carbonization (SBRH) as precursor. Various parameters such as temperature and CTAB/SBRH mass ratios were investigated to improve the mesoporous structure. The chosen catalyst was based on its degree of order of the mesoporous channels, and its activity was also tested in the methanolysis of linseed oil to methyl esters which was considered as a valuable blending composition for commercial jet fuels. The results showed that the temperature and CTAB/SBRH mass ratio should be of 70 °C and 0.3/1, respectively. The catalyst samples were characterized by many techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and ammonia-temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD). The methyl ester composition of the as-synthesized biofuel was determined using gas chromatography supported by mass spectroscopy detector (GC–MS). The results of the characterizations showed that the catalyst possessed superacidic sites (NH3-TPD) caused by –SO3H groups (confirmed by FT-IR analysis) and ordered mesoporous structure (XRD). The mesoporous channel distribution was also observed by TEM images. The methanolysis yield reached 93.5% (calculated through GC–MS analysis) at mild conditions with high purity of methyl ester products strongly proving the catalyst activity and selectivity.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12


  1. Feng G, Zhi-Long X, Zhi-Xia L (2012) Synthesis of biodiesel from acidified soybean soapstock using a lignin-derived carbonaceous catalyst. Appl Energy 98:47. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.02.071

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Gadiou R, Saadallah SE, Piquero T, David P, Parmentier J, Vix-Guterl C (2005) The influence of textural properties on the adsorption of hydrogen on ordered nanostructured carbons. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 79:121. doi:10.1016/j.micromeso.2004.10.034

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Hartmann M, Vinu A, Chandrasekar G (2005) Adsorption of vitamin E on mesoporous carbon molecular sieves. Chem Mater 17:829. doi:10.1021/cm048564f

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Joo SH, Choi SJ, Oh I, Kwak J, Liu Z, Terasaki O, Ryoo R (2001) Ordered nanoporous arrays of carbon supporting high dispersions of platinum nanoparticles. Nature 412:169. doi:10.1038/35084046

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Jun S, Joo SH, Ryoo R, Kruk M, Jaroniec M, Liu Z, Ohsuna T, Terasaki O (2000) Synthesis of new, nanoporous carbon with hexagonally ordered mesostructure. J Am Chem Soc 122:10712. doi:10.1021/ja002261e

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Laha SC, Ryoo R (2003) Synthesis of thermally stable mesoporous cerium oxide with nanocrystalline frameworks using mesoporous silica templates. Chem Commun 2138. doi:10.1039/B305524H

  7. Masakazu T, Atsushi T, Mai O, Kondo JN, Shigenobu H, Kazunari D, Michikazu H (2005) Green chemistry: biodiesel made with sugar catalyst. Nature 438. doi:10.1038/438178a

  8. Mo X, Lopez DE, Suwannakarn K, Liu Y, Lotero E, Goodwin JG, Lu CQ (2008) Activation and deactivation characteristics of sulfonated carbon catalysts. J Catal 254(2):332. doi:10.1016/j.jcat.2008.01.011

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Nakajima K, Hara M, Hayashi S (2007) Environmentally benign production of chemicals and energy using a carbon-based strong solid acid. J Am Ceram Soc 90(12):3725. doi:10.1111/j.1551-2916.2007.02082.x

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Nguyen HKD, Nguyen DT (2016) Preparation of meso-structured silica–calcium mixed oxide (MSCMO) catalyst for converting Vietnamese rubber seed oil to biodiesel. J Porous Mater. doi:10.1007/s10934-016-0279-8

    Google Scholar 

  11. Nguyen HKD, Pham VV, Do HT (2016a) Preparation of Ni/biochar catalyst for hydrotreating of bio-oil from microalgae biomass. Catal Lett 146(11):2381. doi:10.1007/s10562-016-1873-8

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Nguyen HKD, Pham PV, Vo AD (2016b) Preparation, characterization and thermal stability improvement of mesoporous sulfated zirconia for converting deodorizer distillate to methyl esters. J Porous Mater. doi:10.1007/s10934-016-0274-0

    Google Scholar 

  13. Nguyen HKD, Van Nguyen H, Dao DS, Hoang LL (2016c) Preparation and characterization of ordered mesoporous Mg–Al–Co hydrotalcite based catalyst for decarboxylation of jatropha oil. J Porous Mater. doi:10.1007/s10934-016-0310-0

    Google Scholar 

  14. Ryoo R, Joo SH, Jun S (1999) Synthesis of highly ordered carbon molecular sieves via template-mediated structural transformation. J Phys Chem B 103:7743. doi:10.1021/jp991673a

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Sakthivel A, Huang SJ, Chen WH, Lan ZH, Chen KH, Kim TW, Ryoo R, Chiang AST, Liu SB (2004) Replication of mesoporous aluminosilicate molecular sieves (RMMs) with zeolite framework from mesoporous carbons (CMKs). Chem Mater 16:3168. doi:10.1021/cm035293k

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Vinu A, Streb C, Murugesan V, Hartmann M (2003) Adsorption of cytochrome c on new mesoporous carbon molecular sieves. J Phys Chem B 107:8297. doi:10.1021/jp03

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Vix-Guterl C, Saadallah S, Jurewicz K, Frackowiak E, Reda M, Parmentier J, Patarin J, Beguin F, Vix-Guterl C, Saadallah S, Jurewicz K, Frackowiak E, Reda M, Parmentier J, Patarin J, Beguin F (2004) Supercapacitor electrodes from new ordered porous carbon materials obtained by a templating procedure. Mater Sci Eng B 108:148. doi:10.1016/j.mseb.2003.10.096

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Xing W, Qiao SZ, Ding RG, Li F, Lu GQ, Yan ZF, Cheng HM (2006) Superior electric double layer capacitors using ordered mesoporous carbons. Carbon 44(2):216–224. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2005.07.029

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Xue-li S, Xiao-bo F, Cheng-wu Z, Wei-ya H, Yi Z, Jun Y, Yuan-ming Z (2012) Preparation of a novel carbon based solid acid catalyst for biodiesel production via a sustainable route. Catal Lett 142:869. doi:10.1007/s10562-012-0840-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hong K. D. Nguyen.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Nguyen, H.K.D., Vo, H.V., Dang, T.A.T. et al. Design of novel order mesostructured superacid catalyst from rice husk for the conversion of linseed oil to methyl esters. Chem. Pap. 72, 119–128 (2018).

Download citation


  • Superacid
  • Mesoporous material
  • Rice husk
  • Condensation–evaporation process