Chemical Papers

, Volume 71, Issue 8, pp 1445–1451 | Cite as

Green synthesis of ultrafine super-paramagnetic magnetite nano-fluid: a magnetic and dielectric study

  • Ali BahadurEmail author
  • Shahid Iqbal
  • Aamer Saeed
  • Muhammad Imran Bashir
  • Muhammad ShoaibEmail author
  • Muhammad Waqas
  • Ghulam Shabir
  • Abdul Jabbar
Original Paper


In this communication, environmental friendly and biocompatible ultrafine super-paramagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (USPMNs) ferro-fluid was prepared by modifying co-precipitation green itinerary under optimized conditions. Phase pattern of USPMNs was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Particle size of USPMNs was also estimated using the Scherrer’s formula which turned out to be almost 12 nm, confirmed by SEM image. The magnetic study of USPMNs confirmed the super-paramagnetic nature with zero coercivity and remanence. The spin glass behavior on the surface of these USPMNs below 40 K was attributed for the exchange bias effects during field cooling process as confirmed by M-T graph. The dielectric constant and dissipation factor followed the same decaying dispersion trend at room temperature. The low temperature effects on dielectric constant and dissipation factor were also studied at frequencies of 10, 20 and 30 kHz.

Graphical Abstract


Dielectric constant Co-precipitation Exchange bias effects Ultrafine super-paramagnetic Magnetite 


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Copyright information

© Institute of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ali Bahadur
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shahid Iqbal
    • 2
  • Aamer Saeed
    • 1
  • Muhammad Imran Bashir
    • 3
  • Muhammad Shoaib
    • 1
    Email author
  • Muhammad Waqas
    • 4
  • Ghulam Shabir
    • 1
  • Abdul Jabbar
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryQuaid-i-Azam UniversityIslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.School of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringUniversity of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsQuaid-i-Azam UniversityIslamabadPakistan
  4. 4.Key Laboratory of Multi-Phase Complex SystemInstitute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  5. 5.Department of ChemistryAllama Iqbal Open University IslamabadIslamabadPakistan

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