Renehan AG, Tyson M, Egger M, et al. Body-mass index and incidence of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Lancet. 2008;371:569–78.
Ben Q, An W, Jiang Y, et al. Body mass index increases risk for colorectal adenomas based on meta-analysis. Gastroenterology. 2012;142:762–72.
Omata F, Deshpande GA, Ohde S, et al. The association between obesity and colorectal adenoma: systematic review and meta-analysis. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2013;48:136–46.
Kim NH, Park JH, Park DI, et al. Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for adenoma occurrence at surveillance colonoscopy. A single-center experience in Korea. Medicine. 2016;95:e4454.
Hu NC, Chen JD, Lin YM, et al. Stepwise relationship between components of metabolic syndrome and risk of colorectal adenoma in a Taiwanese population receiving screening colonoscopy. J Formos Med Assoc. 2011;110:100–8.
Vu HT, Ufere N, Yan Y, et al. Diabetes mellitus increases risk for colorectal adenomas in younger patients. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20:6946–52.
Yoon YS, Keum N, Zhang X, et al. Hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and colorectal adenomas: a meta-analysis. Metabolism. 2015;64:1324–33.
Colangelo LA, Gapstur SM, Gann PH, et al. Colorectal cancer mortality and factors related to the insulin resistance syndrome. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2002;11:385–91.
Ahmed RL, Schmitz KH, Anderson KE, et al. The metabolic syndrome and risk of incident colorectal cancer. Cancer. 2006;107:28–36.
Stürmer T, Buring JE, Lee IM, et al. Metabolic abnormalities and risk for colorectal cancer in the physicians’ health study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2006;15:2391–7.
Bowers K, Albanes D, Limburg P, et al. A prospective study of anthropometric and clinical measurements associated with insulin resistance syndrome and colorectal cancer in male smokers. Am J Epidemiol. 2006;164:652–64.
Trevisan M, Liu J, Muti P, et al. Markers of insulin resistance and colorectal cancer mortality. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2001;10:937–41.
Stocks T, Lukanova A, Johansson M, et al. Components of metabolic syndrome and colorectal cancer risk; a prospective study. Int J Obesity. 2008;32:304–14.
Sung JJ, Ng SC, Chan FK, et al. An updated Asia Pacific consensus recommendations on colorectal cancer screening. Gut. 2015;64:121–32.
Rex DK, Boland CR, Dominitz JA, et al. Colorectal cancer screening: recommendations for physicians and patients from the U.S. multi-society task force on colorectal cancer. Am J Gastroenterol. 2017;112:1016–30.
Lee BI, Hong SP, Kim SE, et al. Korean guidelines for colorectal cancer screening and polyp detection. Clin Endosc. 2012;45:25–43.
The Paris endoscopic classification of superficial neoplastic lesions: esophagus, stomach, and colon. Gastrointest Endosc. 2003;58(Suppl 6):S3–43.
Lin OS, Kozarek RA, Cha JM. Impact of sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy on colorectal cancer incidence and mortality: an evidence-based review of published prospective and retrospective studies. Intest Res. 2014;12:268–74.
Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, et al. Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. Int J Cancer. 2010;127:2893–917.
Botteri E, Iodice S, Bagnardi V, et al. Smoking and colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2008;300:2765–78.
Regula J, Rupinski M, Kraszewska E, et al. Colonoscopy in colorectal-cancer screening for detection of advanced neoplasia. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:1863–72.
Hong SN, Kim JH, Choe WH, et al. Prevalence and risk of colorectal neoplasms in asymptomatic, average-risk screenees 40 to 49 years of age. Gastrointest Endosc. 2010;72:480–9.
Imperiale TF, Wagner DR, Lin CY, et al. Results of screening colonoscopy among persons 40 to 49 years of age. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:1781–5.
Strul H, Kariv R, Leshno M, et al. The prevalence rate and anatomic location of colorectal adenoma and cancer detected by colonoscopy in average-risk individuals aged 40-80 years. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101:255–62.
Eisele R, Vogelsang E, Kraft K, et al. Screening for colorectal lesions with high-resolution video colonoscopes in a German male average-risk population at 40 to 59 years of age. Z Gastroenterol. 2007;45:952–7.
Rundle AG, Lebwohl B, Vogel R, et al. Colonoscopic screening in average risk individuals ages 40 to 49 versus 50 to 59 years. Gastroenterology. 2008;134:1311–5.
Boursi B, Halak A, Umansky M, et al. Colonoscopic screening of an average-risk population for colorectal neoplasia. Endoscopy. 2009;41:516–21.
Choi YS, Suh JP, Lee DS, et al. Colonoscopy screening for individuals aged 40-49 years with a family history of stomach cancer in Korea. Int J Color Dis. 2010;25:443–7.
Chung SJ, Kim YS, Yang SY, et al. Prevalence and risk of colorectal adenoma in asymptomatic Koreans aged 40-49 years undergoing screening colonoscopy. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;25:519–25.
Thoma MN, Castro F, Golawala M, et al. Detection of colorectal neoplasia by colonoscopy in average-risk patients age 40-49 versus 50-59 years. Dig Dis Sci. 2011;56:1503–8.
Ko HJ, Youn CH. Determination of the beginning age for colonoscopic screening among colonoscopy-naïve individuals. Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol. 2012;36:384–90.
Hemmasi G, Sohrabi M, Zamani F, et al. Prevalence of colorectal adenoma in an average-risk population aged 40-50 versus 50-60 years. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2015;24:386–90.
Jung YS, Ryu S, Chang Y, et al. Risk factors for colorectal neoplasia in persons aged 30 to 39 years and 40 to 49 years. Gastrointest Endosc. 2015;81:637–45.
Leshno A, Moshkowitz M, David M, et al. Prevalence of colorectal neoplasms in young, average risk individuals: a turning tide between east and west. World J Gastroenterol. 2016;22:7365–72.
Park YM, Kim HS, Park JJ, et al. A simple scoring model for advanced colorectal neoplasm in asymptomatic subjects aged 40-49 years. BMC Gastroenterol. 2017;17:7.
Wong JCT, Lau JYW, Suen BY, et al. Prevalence, distribution, risk factor for colonic neoplasia in 1133 subjects aged 40-49 undergoing screening colonoscopy. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;32:92–7.
Rosen AB, Schneider EC. Colorectal cancer screening disparities related to obesity and gender. J Gen Intern Med. 2004;19:332–8.
Maruthur NM, Bolen S, Gudzune K, et al. Body mass index and colon cancer screening: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2012;21:737–46.
Messina CR, Lane DS, Anderson JC. Body mass index and screening for colorectal cancer: gender and attitudinal factors. Cancer Epidemiol. 2012;36:400–8.