IFSO Worldwide Survey 2016: Primary, Endoluminal, and Revisional Procedures

Abstract

Background and Aim

The International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity and Metabolic Disorders (IFSO), being a Federation of 62 national societies, is the ideal network to monitor the number and type of procedures at a global level. The IFSO survey, enriched with a special section on revisional procedures, aims to report the number and types of bariatric procedures performed worldwide in 2016 and analyzes the surgical trends from 2008 to 2016.

Methods

The 2016 IFSO Survey form was emailed to all IFSO societies. Each Society was requested to indicate the number and type of bariatric procedures performed in the country. Trend analyses from 2008 to 2016 were also performed.

Results

The total number of bariatric/metabolic procedures performed in 2016 was 685,874; 634,897 (92.6%) of which were primary and 50,977 were revisional (7.4%). Among the primary interventions, 609,897 (96%) were surgical and 25,359 (4%) were endoluminal. The most performed primary surgical bariatric/metabolic procedure was sleeve gastrectomy (SG) (N = 340,550; 53.6%), followed by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (N = 191,326; 30.1%), and one-anastomosis gastric bypass (N = 30,563; 4.8%).

Conclusions

In 2016, there was an increase in the total number both of surgical and endoluminal bariatric/metabolic procedures. Revisional procedures represent about 7% of the total bariatric interventions. SG remains the most performed surgical procedure in the world.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8

References

  1. 1.

    Colquitt JL, Pickett K, Loveman E, Frampton GK. Surgery for weight loss in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014(8): CD003641. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003641.pub4

  2. 2.

    Lee PC, Dixon J. Medical devices for the treatment of obesity. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;14(9):553–64. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrgastro.2017.80.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Favretti F, Cadiere GB, Segato G, et al. Laparoscopic placement of adjustable silicone gastric banding: early experience. Obes Surg. 1995;5(1):71–3.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Favretti F, Cadiere GB, Segato G, et al. Laparoscopic adjustable silicone gastric banding: technique and results. Obes Surg. 1995;5(4):364–71.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Himpens J, Cadiere GB, Bazi M, et al. Long-term outcomes of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Arch Surg (Chicago, Ill : 1960). 2011;146(7):802–7. https://doi.org/10.1001/archsurg.2011.45.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Suter M, Calmes JM, Paroz A, et al. A 10-year experience with laparoscopic gastric banding for morbid obesity: high long-term complication and failure rates. Obes Surg. 2006;16(7):829–35. https://doi.org/10.1381/096089206777822359.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Bueter M, Thalheimer A, Wierlemann A, et al. Reoperations after gastric banding: replacement or alternative procedures? Surg Endosc. 2009;23(2):334–40. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00464-008-9926-8.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Buchwald H, Oien DM. Metabolic/bariatric surgery worldwide 2008. Obes Surg. 2009;19(12):1605–11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11695-009-0014-5.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Hess DS, Hess DW. Biliopancreatic diversion with a duodenal switch. Obes Surg. 1998;8(3):267–82. https://doi.org/10.1381/096089298765554476.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Ren CJ, Patterson E, Gagner M. Early results of laparoscopic biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch: a case series of 40 consecutive patients. Obes Surg. 2000;10(6):514–23; discussion 524. https://doi.org/10.1381/096089200321593715.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Regan JP, Inabnet WB, Gagner M, et al. Early experience with two-stage laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass as an alternative in the super-super obese patient. Obes Surg. 2003;13(6):861–4. https://doi.org/10.1381/096089203322618669.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Cottam D, Qureshi FG, Mattar SG, et al. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy as an initial weight-loss procedure for high-risk patients with morbid obesity. Surg Endosc. 2006;20(6):859–63. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00464-005-0134-5.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Gumbs AA, Gagner M, Dakin G, et al. Sleeve gastrectomy for morbid obesity. Obes Surg. 2007;17(7):962–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Deitel M, Crosby RD, Gagner M. The first international consensus summit for sleeve gastrectomy (SG), New York City, October 25-27, 2007. Obes Surg. 2008;18(5):487–96. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11695-008-9471-5.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Updated position statement on sleeve gastrectomy as a bariatric procedure. Surgery for obesity and related diseases : official journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery. 2010;6(1):1–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soard.2009.11.004.

  16. 16.

    Angrisani L, Santonicola A, Iovino P, et al. Bariatric surgery and endoluminal procedures: IFSO worldwide survey 2014. Obes Surg. 2017;27:2279–89. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11695-017-2666-x.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Angrisani L. 2014: the year of the sleeve supremacy. Obes Surg. 2017;27(6):1626–7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11695-017-2681-y.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Jammu GS, Sharma R. A 7-year clinical audit of 1107 cases comparing sleeve gastrectomy, Roux-En-Y gastric bypass, and mini-gastric bypass, to determine an effective and safe bariatric and metabolic procedure. Obes Surg. 2016;26(5):926–32. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11695-015-1869-2.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Felsenreich DM, Langer FB, Kefurt R, et al. Weight loss, weight regain, and conversions to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: 10-year results of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Surg Obes Relat Dis : official journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery. 2016;12(9):1655–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soard.2016.02.021.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Arman GA, Himpens J, Dhaenens J, et al. Long-term (11+years) outcomes in weight, patient satisfaction, comorbidities, and gastroesophageal reflux treatment after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Surg Obes Relat Dis : official journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery. 2016;12(10):1778–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soard.2016.01.013.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Mason EE, Ito C. Gastric bypass in obesity. Surg Clin North Am. 1967;47(6):1345–51.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Wittgrove AC, Clark GW, Tremblay LJ. Laparoscopic gastric bypass, Roux-en-Y: preliminary report of five cases. Obes Surg. 1994;4(4):353–7. https://doi.org/10.1381/096089294765558331.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Christou NV, Look D, Maclean LD. Weight gain after short- and long-limb gastric bypass in patients followed for longer than 10 years. Ann Surg. 2006;244(5):734–40. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.sla.0000217592.04061.d5.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    De Luca M, Tie T, Ooi G, et al. Mini gastric bypass-one anastomosis gastric bypass (MGB-OAGB)-IFSO position statement. Obes Surg. 2018;28:1188–206. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11695-018-3182-3.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Fisher BL, Buchwald H, Clark W, et al. Mini-gastric bypass controversy. Obes Surg. 2001;11(6):773–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Lee WJ, Lin YH. Single-anastomosis gastric bypass (SAGB): appraisal of clinical evidence. Obes Surg. 2014;24(10):1749–56. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11695-014-1369-9.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Scozzari G, Trapani R, Toppino M, et al. Esophagogastric cancer after bariatric surgery: systematic review of the literature. Surg Obes Relat Dis : official journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery. 2013;9(1):133–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soard.2012.10.002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Bruzzi M, Rau C, Voron T, et al. Single anastomosis or mini-gastric bypass: long-term results and quality of life after a 5-year follow-up. Surg Obes Relat Dis : official journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery. 2015;11(2):321–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soard.2014.09.004.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Angrisani L, Santonicola A, Iovino P, et al. Bariatric surgery worldwide 2013. Obes Surg. 2015;25(10):1822–32. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11695-015-1657-z.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Alkhalifah N, Lee WJ, Hai TC, et al. 15-year experience of laparoscopic single anastomosis (mini-) gastric bypass: comparison with other bariatric procedures. Surg Endosc. 2018;32:3024–31. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00464-017-6011-1.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Scopinaro N, Gianetta E, Civalleri D, et al. Bilio-pancreatic bypass for obesity: II. Initial experience in man. Br J Surg. 1979;66(9):618–20.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Marceau P, Hould FS, Simard S, et al. Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. World J Surg. 1998;22(9):947–54.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Buchwald H, Oien DM. Metabolic/bariatric surgery worldwide 2011. Obes Surg. 2013;23(4):427–36. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11695-012-0864-0.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Gagner M, Matteotti R. Laparoscopic biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. Surg Clin North Am. 2005;85(1):141–9, x-xi. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.suc.2004.10.003.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Roslin MS, Gagner M, Goriparthi R, et al. The rationale for a duodenal switch as the primary surgical treatment of advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic disease. Surg Obes Relat Dis : official journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery. 2015;11(3):704–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soard.2014.11.017.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Skogar ML, Sundbom M. Duodenal switch is superior to gastric bypass in patients with super obesity when evaluated with the bariatric analysis and reporting outcome system (BAROS). Obes Surg. 2017;27(9):2308–16. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11695-017-2680-z.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Sanchez-Pernaute A, Rubio Herrera MA, Perez-Aguirre E, et al. Proximal duodenal-ileal end-to-side bypass with sleeve gastrectomy: proposed technique. Obes Surg. 2007;17(12):1614–8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11695-007-9287-8.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Sanchez-Pernaute A, Rubio MA, Perez Aguirre E, et al. Single-anastomosis duodenoileal bypass with sleeve gastrectomy: metabolic improvement and weight loss in first 100 patients. Surg Obes Relat Dis : official journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery. 2013;9(5):731–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soard.2012.07.018.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Mahdy T, Al Wahedi A, Schou C. Efficacy of single anastomosis sleeve ileal (SASI) bypass for type-2 diabetic morbid obese patients: gastric bipartition, a novel metabolic surgery procedure: a retrospective cohort study. Int J Surg (London, England). 2016;34:28–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2016.08.018.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Machytka E, Gaur S, Chuttani R, et al. Elipse, the first procedureless gastric balloon for weight loss: a prospective, observational, open-label, multicenter study. Endoscopy. 2017;49(2):154–60. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0042-119296.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Angrisani L, Santonicola A, Vitiello A, et al. Elipse balloon: the pitfalls of excessive simplicity. Obes Surg. 2018;28:1419–21. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11695-018-3148-5.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Scopinaro N. The IFSO and obesity surgery throughout the world. International Federation for the Surgery of obesity. Obes Surg. 1998;8(1):3–8.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Buchwald H, Williams SE. Bariatric surgery worldwide 2003. Obes Surg. 2004;14(9):1157–64. https://doi.org/10.1381/0960892042387057.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We thank the Presidents of the responding IFSO national societies and Manuela Mazzarella and Stefanie D’arco of IFSO Secretariat for their support.

IFSO Nation President

Argentina Mario Antozzi

Australia–New Zeland Ahmad Aly

Austria Gerhard Prager

Azerbaijan Taryel Omerov

Belgium Jean Saey

Bolivia Sergio Aparicio

Brazil Caetano Marchesini

Canada* Laurent Biertho

Chile Ricardo Funke

China Cunchuan Wuang

Colombia Cesar Guevara

Costa Rica Jorge Esmeral

Czech Republic Martin Fried

Dominican Republic Luis Betances

Ecuador Max Torres

Egypt Alaa Abbas

Finland Jyrki Kössi

France Jerome Dargent

Germany Dieter Birk

Greece Dimitrios Zacharoulis

Guatemala Fernando Montufar

Honduras Ricardo Pena

Hong Kong Simon Wong

Iceland Audun Sigurdsson

India Rajesh Khullar

Iran Kalaji Alireza

Israel Nasser Sakran

Italy Luigi Piazza

Japan Hisahiro Matsubara

Jordan Ahmad Sami Salem

Kazakhstan Oral Ospanov

Korea Joo-Ho Lee

Kuwait Mohammed Al Jarallah

Lebanon Jean Biagini

Lithuania Almantas Maleckas

Malaysia Hisham Mura Nor

México Nelson Rodriguez Huerta

Netherlands Bart van Wagensveld

Norway Marius Svanevik

Perú Ramiro Carbajal Nicho

Poland Mariusz Wylezol

Portugal Jorge Santos

Romania Niculae Iordache

Russian Federation Yury Yashkov

Saudi Arabia Khalid Mirza Gari

Singapore Asim Shabbir

Slovenia Tadeja Pintar

South Africa Tess van der Merwe

Spain Juan Carlos Ruiz da Adana

Sweden Torsten Olbers

Switzerland Renward S. Hauser

Taiwan Wei-Jei Lee

Turkey Mustafa Taskin

Ukraine Andriy Lavryk

UAE Ali Khammas

UK Roger Ackroyd

USA Stacy Brethauer

Venezuela Salvador Navarrete

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Luigi Angrisani.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Statement of Informed Consent

This is a survey in which we do not directly involve human subjects; it is limited to an analysis of bariatric procedures performed around the world.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Angrisani, L., Santonicola, A., Iovino, P. et al. IFSO Worldwide Survey 2016: Primary, Endoluminal, and Revisional Procedures. OBES SURG 28, 3783–3794 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11695-018-3450-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Bariatric metabolic surgery
  • Worldwide survey
  • Endoluminal and revisional procedures