Dietary Intake and Weight Changes 5 Years After Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy
Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is becoming a leading primary bariatric surgery but long-term outcome remains unclear. The amount of food eaten is drastically reduced after LSG and may lead to nutritional deficiencies potentially. The aim of this study is to investigate long-term dietary intake and weight status after LSG.
Forty patients underwent LSG had more than 5-year follow-up with complete clinical data and food frequency questionnaires were analyzed.
The mean age of subjects is 33.5 years old with mean body mass index (BMI) 37.9 kg/m2. Mean BMI loss at 5 years after LSG is 10.6 kg/m2. Weight regain appeared in 20% of patients. Dietary composition analysis at 5 years showed mean calorie intake of 1230 kcal/day, protein 70 g/day (22.5% of calorie), fat 50 g/day (36.1%), carbohydrate 126 g (41.4%), iron 7.5 mg/day, calcium 536.2 mg/day, and fiber 11.7 g/day. Calorie intake at 5 years after LSG is correlated with weight loss but weight regain is not related to a higher calorie intake. All comorbidities were significantly improved after LSG but hemoglobin and parathyroid hormone significantly changed. Incidence of iron deficiency anemia increased from 7.5% at pre-operation to 41.2% after LSG. Incidence of secondary hyperparathyroidism increased from 17.5 to 60.7%.
LSG is an effective and durable bariatric procedure but with significant changes in nutritional status. Dietary instruction for LSG should include foods rich in protein, iron, calcium, and fiber.