Impact of Bariatric Surgery on Heme Oxygenase-1, Inflammation, and Insulin Resistance in Morbid Obesity with Obstructive Sleep Apnea
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Morbid obesity and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) interact at an inflammatory level. Bariatric surgery reduces inflammatory responses associated with obesity. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an enzyme with anti-inflammatory properties, which might be increased in morbid obesity or OSA. We studied morbidly obese patients with OSA to determine: (a) HO-1 plasma concentrations according to OSA severity and their relationship with insulin resistance and inflammation and (b) the impact of bariatric surgery on HO-1 and parameters of insulin resistance and inflammation.
Material and Methods
We analyzed the homeostasis model insulin resistance index (HOMA) and plasma concentrations of HO-1, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, interleukin-1-beta, C reactive protein (CRP), and adiponectin according to polysomnography findings in 66 morbidly obese patients before bariatric surgery and 12 months after surgery.
Before surgery, HO-1 plasma concentrations were similar in three groups of patients with mild, moderate, and severe OSA, and correlated with HOMA (r = 0.27, p = 0.02). Twelve months after surgery, low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance had decreased in all the groups, but HO-1 plasma concentration had decreased only in the severe OSA group (p = 0.02). In this group, the reduction in HO-1 correlated with a reduction in CRP concentrations (r = 0.43, p = 0.04) and with improved HOMA score (r = 0.37, p = 0.03).
Bariatric surgery decreases HO-1 concentrations in morbid obesity with severe OSA, and this decrease is associated with decreases in insulin resistance and in inflammation.
KeywordsHeme oxygenase-1 Bariatric surgery Insulin resistance Inflammation OSA
We thank Belén Pons for help with informatics, Jordi Real for statistical analysis, and David Torrents for help in preparing the manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
This study was supported by Beques Taulí de Recerca i Innovació 2014/005 Institut d’Investigació i Innovació Parc Taulí (I3PT).
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Statement of Informed Consent
The authors declare that informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
Statement of Ethics
All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments. The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee.
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