Advertisement

Obesity Surgery

, Volume 26, Issue 4, pp 833–838 | Cite as

Malnutrition in Bariatric Surgery Candidates: Multiple Micronutrient Deficiencies Prior to Surgery

  • Leigh A. PetersonEmail author
  • Lawrence J. CheskinEmail author
  • Margaret Furtado
  • Konstantinos Papas
  • Michael A. Schweitzer
  • Thomas H. Magnuson
  • Kimberley E. Steele
Original Contributions

Abstract

Background

Over 78 million American adults have obesity. Bariatric surgery is the leading means of durable weight loss. Nutritional deficiencies are commonly treated post-operatively but are often undiagnosed pre-operatively. Malnutrition is correlated with adverse surgical outcomes.

Objectives

The aim of this study is to assess pre-operative nutritional status in our bariatric surgery candidates in a cross-sectional study.

Methods

We recruited 58 bariatric candidates approved to undergo the Roux-en Y gastric bypass. Nutritional status was determined for vitamins A, B12, D, E-α, and E-β/γ as well as thiamine, folate, and iron. We used clinical as well as frank deficiency cut-offs based on the Institute of Medicine and the World Health Organization guidelines.

Results

This cohort was largely female (77.6 %) and white (63.8 %). Median age was 42.2 years. Median body mass index (BMI) was 46.3 kg/m2. Multiple comorbidities (MCM) were present in 41.4 %, 54.0 % hypertension, 42.0 % diabetic, 34.0 % sleep apnea. Men had more comorbidities, 69.2 % with MCM. Folate and iron saturation varied significantly by sex. Vitamins A, D, E-α, and thiamine significantly varied by race. Vitamin D negatively correlated with BMI (p = 0.003) and age (p = 0.030). Vitamin A negatively correlated with age (p = 0.001) and number of comorbidities (p = 0.003). These pre-operative bariatric candidates had significant malnutrition, particularly in vitamin D (92.9 %) and iron (36.2 to 56.9 %). Multiple micronutrient deficiency (MMND) was more common in blacks (50.0 versus 39.7 % overall). Number of comorbidities did not correlate with MMND.

Conclusions

Malnutrition in one or multiple micronutrients is pervasive in this pre-operative bariatric cohort. The effect of pre-operative supplementation, especially vitamin D and iron, should be explored.

Keywords

Bariatric surgery Nutritional status Multiple micronutrient deficiency Malnutrition 

Notes

Conflicts of Interest Disclosure Statement

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Statement of Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Statement of Human and Animal Rights

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

References

  1. 1.
    Baker MT. The history and evolution of bariatric surgical procedures. Surg Clin N Am. 2011;91:1181–201. viii.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Burden S, Todd C, Hill J, et al. Pre-operative nutrition support in patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;11:CD008879.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dempsey DT, Mullen JL, Buzby GP. The link between nutritional status and clinical outcome: can nutritional intervention modify it? Am J Clin Nutr. 1988;47:352–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Evans DC, Martindale RG, Kiraly LN, et al. Nutrition optimization prior to surgery. Nutr Clin Pract. 2014;29:10–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mechanick JI, Kushner RF, Sugerman HJ, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, The Obesity Society, and American Society for Metabolic & Bariatric Surgery Medical guidelines for clinical practice for the perioperative nutritional, metabolic, and nonsurgical support of the bariatric surgery patient. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009;17(1):S1–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Handelman GJ, Epstein WL, Peerson J, et al. Human adipose alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol kinetics during and after 1 y of alpha-tocopherol supplementation. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59:1025–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kirkness JP, Schwartz AR, Schneider H, et al. Contribution of male sex, age, and obesity to mechanical instability of the upper airway during sleep. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008;104:1618–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kritikou I, Basta M, Tappouni R, et al. Sleep apnoea and visceral adiposity in middle-aged male and female subjects. Eur Respir J. 2013;41:601–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Schwartz AR, Patil SP, Laffan AM, et al. Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea: pathogenic mechanisms and therapeutic approaches. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2008;5:185–92.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Schwartz AR, Patil SP, Squier S, et al. Obesity and upper airway control during sleep. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2010;108:430–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Schwartz AR, Schneider H, Smith PL, et al. Physiologic phenotypes of sleep apnea pathogenesis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;184:1105–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Iftikhar IH, Khan MF, Das A, et al. Meta-analysis: continuous positive airway pressure improves insulin resistance in patients with sleep apnea without diabetes. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2013;10:115–20.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lam JC, Mak JC, Ip MS. Obesity, obstructive sleep apnoea and metabolic syndrome. Respirology. 2012;17:223–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pallayova M, Steele KE, Magnuson TH, et al. Sleep apnea predicts distinct alterations in glucose homeostasis and biomarkers in obese adults with normal and impaired glucose metabolism. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2010;9:83.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Punjabi NM, Sorkin JD, Katzel LI, et al. Sleep-disordered breathing and insulin resistance in middle-aged and overweight men. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;165:677–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tasali E, Ip MS. Obstructive sleep apnea and metabolic syndrome: alterations in glucose metabolism and inflammation. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2008;5:207–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Spechler SJ, Sharma P, Souza RF, et al. American gastroenterological association medical position statement on the management of Barrett’s esophagus. Gastroenterology. 2011;140:1084–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hirota WK, Zuckerman MJ, Adler DG, et al. ASGE guideline: the role of endoscopy in the surveillance of premalignant conditions of the upper GI tract. Gastrointest Endosc. 2006;63:570–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fish E, Beverstein G, Olson D, et al. Vitamin D status of morbidly obese bariatric surgery patients. J Surg Res. 2010;164:198–202.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    McGill AT, Stewart JM, Lithander FE, et al. Relationships of low serum vitamin D3 with anthropometry and markers of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes in overweight and obesity. Nutr J. 2008;7:4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Parikh SJ, Edelman M, Uwaifo GI, et al. The relationship between obesity and serum 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D concentrations in healthy adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:1196–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Salehpour A, Hosseinpanah F, Shidfar F, et al. A 12-week double-blind randomized clinical trial of vitamin D(3) supplementation on body fat mass in healthy overweight and obese women. Nutr J. 2012;11:78.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Saneei P, Salehi-Abargouei A, Esmaillzadeh A. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels in relation to body mass index: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev 2013Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Vimaleswaran KS, Berry DJ, Lu C, et al. Causal relationship between obesity and vitamin D status: bi-directional Mendelian randomization analysis of multiple cohorts. PLoS Med. 2013;10:e1001383.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lee P, Greenfield JR, Seibel MJ, et al. Adequacy of vitamin D replacement in severe deficiency is dependent on body mass index. Am J Med. 2009;122:1056–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. FastStats—Anemia. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/anemia.htm . 7-14-2014. 12-22-2014.
  27. 27.
    Institute of Medicine Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2010.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Liel Y, Ulmer E, Shary J, et al. Low circulating vitamin D in obesity. Calcif Tissue Int. 1988;43:199–201.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wortsman J, Matsuoka LY, Chen TC, et al. Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72:690–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Earthman CP, Beckman LM, Masodkar K, et al. The link between obesity and low circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations: considerations and implications. Int J Obes (Lond). 2012;36:387–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Goldner WS, Stoner JA, Thompson J, et al. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in morbidly obese patients: a comparison with non-obese controls. Obes Surg. 2008;18:145–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Holick MF. Deficiency of sunlight and vitamin D. BMJ. 2008;336:1318–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, et al. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:1911–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Johns Hopkins Center for Bariatric SurgeryBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.The Johns Hopkins Weight Management Center, The Global Obesity Prevention Center at Johns HopkinsBaltimoreUSA
  4. 4.The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  5. 5.The Johns Hopkins Bayview Department of Clinical NutritionAmerican University of Antigua School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  6. 6.JonesboroughUSA

Personalised recommendations