Metabolic surgery is defined as “the operative manipulation of a normal organ or organ system to achieve a biological result for a potential health gain.” The evolution of metabolic/bariatric surgery can be viewed from several perspectives: (1) realization that bariatric surgery has always been and will always be metabolic surgery; (2) lessons to be learned from the six dominant procedures; (3) overview of the other operations that have been proposed; (4) discussion of mechanisms of action; (5) physiology of energy metabolism; and (6) introduction to the emerging concept of inflammation. This review will end with thoughts on the present and future outcomes from the knowledge we have gained from metabolic/bariatric surgery. The author concludes with the statement: Metabolic surgery is cognitive surgery.
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Buchwald, H. The Evolution of Metabolic/Bariatric Surgery. OBES SURG 24, 1126–1135 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11695-014-1354-3