Finucane MM et al. National, regional, and global trends in body-mass index since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 960 country-years and 9.1 million participants. Lancet. 2011;377:557–67.
World Health Organization (WHO), available at: http://www.euro.who.int/en/what-we-do/health-topics/noncommunicable-diseases/obesity. Accessed April 2013
World Health Organization (WHO), Fact Sheet No.311 (updated March 2013) available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/. Accessed April 2013
Frühbeck G, Toplak H, Woodward E, et al. Obesity: the gateway to ill health—an EASO Position Statement on a rising public health, clinical and scientific challenge in Europe. Obes Facts. 2013;6:117–20.
Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kit BK, et al. Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, 1999–2010. JAMA. 2012;307:491–7.
Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, et al. Prevalence of obesity and trends in body mass index among US children and adolescents, 1999–2010. JAMA. 2012;307:483–90.
Kelly T, Yang W, Chen CS, et al. Global burden of obesity in 2005 and projections to 2030. Int J Obes (London). 2008;32:1431–7.
Finkelstein EA, Trogdon JG, Cohen JW, et al. Annual medical spending attributable to obesity: payer- and service-specific estimates. Health Aff (Millwood). 2009;28:w822–31.
Frühbeck G. Obesity: screening for the evident in obesity. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2012;8:570–2.
Sjöström L. Review of the key results from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) trial—a prospective controlled intervention study of bariatric surgery. J Intern Med. 2013;273:219–34.
Berrington de Gonzalez A, Hartge P, Cerhan JR, et al. Body-mass index and mortality among 1.46 million white adults. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:2211–9.
Flegal KM, Kit BK, Orpana H, et al. Association of all-cause mortality with overweight and obesity using standard body mass index categories: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2013;309:71–82.
Neovius M, Narbro K, Keating C, et al. Health care use during 20 years following bariatric surgery. JAMA. 2012;308:1132–41.
Fried M, Hainer V, Basdevant A, et al. Interdisciplinary European guidelines on surgery of severe obesity. Obes Facts. 2008;1:52–9.
Lehman Center Weight Loss Surgery Expert Panel. Commonwealth of Massachusetts Betsy Lehman Center for Patient Safety and Medical Error Reduction Expert Panel on weight loss surgery: executive report. Obes Res. 2005;13:205–305.
Sauerland S, Angrisani L, Belachew M, et al. Obesity surgery. Evidence based guidelines of the EAES. Surg Endosc. 2005;19:200–21.
Maggard MA, Shugarman ML, Suttorp M, et al. Meta-analysis: surgical treatment of obesity. Ann Int Med. 2005;142:547–59.
Laville M, Romon M, Chavrier G, et al. Recommendations regarding obesity surgery. Obes Surg. 2005;15:1476–80.
Mechanick JI, Youdim A, Jones DB, et al. AACE/TOS/ASMS Clinical practice guidelines for the perioperative nutritional, metabolic, and nonsurgical support of the bariatric surgery patient-2013 update: cosponsored by American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, The Obesity Society, and American Society for Metabolic & Bariatric Surgery. Endocr Pract. 2013;19:337–72.
NIH Conference. Gastrointestinal surgery for severe obesity. Consensus development conference panel. Ann Intern Med. 1991;115:956–61.
Ridley N. Expert panel on weight loss surgery—executive report. Obes Res. 2005;13:206–26.
Andersen T, Backer OG, Stokholm KH, et al. Randomized trial of diet and gastroplasty compared with diet alone in morbid obesity. N Engl J Med. 1984;310:352–6.
Andersen T, Stokholm KH, Backer OG, et al. Long term (5-year) results after either horizontal gastroplasty or very low-calorie diet for morbid obesity. Int J Obes. 1988;12:277–84.
Karason K, Lindroos AK, Stenlof K, et al. Relief of cardiorespiratory symptoms and increased physical activity after surgically induced weight loss: results from the Swedish Obese Subjects study. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:1797–802.
Karlsson J, Sjostrom L, Sullivan M. Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS): an intervention study of obesity. Two-year follow-up of health-related quality of life (HRQL) and eating behavior after gastric surgery for severe obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1998;22:113–26.
Fernandez Jr AZ, Demaria EJ, Tichansky DS, et al. Multivariate analysis of risk factors for death following gastric bypass for treatment of morbid obesity. Ann Surg. 2004;239:698–703.
Sjostrom CD, Peltonen M, Wedel H, et al. Differentiated long-term effects of intentional weight loss on diabetes and hypertension. Hypertension. 2000;36:20–5.
Sjostrom CD, Lissner I, Wedel H, et al. Reduction in incidence of diabetes, hypertension and lipid disturbances after intentional weight loss induced by bariatric surgery: the SOS Intervention Study. Obes Res. 1999;7:477–84.
Christou NV, Sampalis JS, Liberman M, et al. Surgery decreases long-term mortality, morbidity, and health care use in morbidly obese patients. Ann Surg. 2004;240:416–23.
Mun EC, Blackburn GL, Matthews JB. Current status of medical and surgical therapy for obesity. Gastroenterology. 2001;120:669–81.
Flum DR, Dellinger E. Impact of gastric bypass on survival: a population-based analysis. J Am Coll Surg. 2004;199:543–51.
American College of Endocrinology (ACE), American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE). AACE/ACE position statement on the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of obesity. Jacksonville: American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists; 1998.
American Society for Bariatric Surgery, Society of American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons. Guidelines for laparoscopic and open surgical treatment of morbid obesity. Obes Surg. 2000;10:378–9.
Douketis JD, Feightner JW, Attia J, et al. with the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. Periodic health examination, 1999 update 1. Detection, prevention and treatment of obesity. CMAJ. 1999;160:513–25.
International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity. Statement on patient selection for bariatric surgery. Obes Surg. 1997;7:41.
Lauterbach K, Westenhofer J, Wirth A, et al. Evidenz-basierte Leitlinie zur Behandlung der Adipositas in Deutschland. Otto Hauser: Köln; 1998.
Msika S. Surgery for morbid obesity: 2. Complications. Results of a technologic evaluation by the ANAES. J Chir (Paris). 2003;140:4–21.
National Institute for Clinical Excellence. 2002 Guidance on the use of surgery to aid weight reduction for people with morbid obesity (Technology Appraisal No 46). National Institute for Clinical Excellence, London, 2002.
Pontiroli AEW, Morabito A. Long-term prevention of mortality in morbid obesity through bariatric surgery. A systematic review and meta-analysis of trials performed with gastric banding and gastric bypass. Ann Surg. 2011;253:484–7. Erratum in: Ann Surg 2011; 253: 1056.
Buchwald H, Rudser KD, Williams SE, et al. Overall mortality, incremental life expectancy, and cause of death at 25 years in the program on the surgical control of the hyperlipidemias. Ann Surg. 2010;251:1034–40.
Padwal R, Klarenbach S, Wiebe N, et al. Bariatric surgery: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized trials. Obes Rev. 2011;12:602–21. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00866.x. Epub 2011 Mar 28.
Garb J, Welch G, Zagarins S, et al. Bariatric surgery for the treatment of morbid obesity: a meta-analysis of weight loss outcomes for laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and laparoscopic gastric bypass. Obes Surg. 2009;19:1447–55.
Valezi AC, Mali Junior J, de Menezes MA, et al. Weight loss outcome after silastic ring Roux-en-Y gastric by-pass: 8 years of follow-up. Obes Surg. 2010;20:1491–5.
Toouli J, Kow L, Ramos AC, et al. International multicenter study of safety and effectiveness of Swedish Adjustable Gastric Band in 1-, 3-, and 5-year follow-up cohorts. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2009;5:598–609.
Buchwald H, Estok R, Fahrbach K, et al. Weight and type 2 diabetes after bariatric surgery: systemic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2009;122:248–56.
Hofsø D, Nordstrand N, Johnson LK, et al. Obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors after weight loss: a clinical trial comparing gastric bypass surgery and intensive lifestyle intervention. Eur J Endocrinol. 2010;163:735–45.
Hofsø D, Jenssen T, Bollerslev J, et al. Beta cell function after weight loss: a clinical trial comparing gastric bypass surgery and intensive lifestyle intervention. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011;164:231–8.
Dixon JB, O’Brien PE, Playfair J, et al. Adjustable gastric banding and conventional therapy for type 2 diabetes. JAMA. 2008;299:316–23.
Lee WJ, Chong K, Ser KH, et al. Gastric bypass vs. sleeve gastrctomy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Surg. 2011;146:143–8.
Lee WJ, Wang W, Lee YC, et al. Effect of laparoscopic mini-gastric bypass for type 2 diabetes mellitus: comparison of BMI > 35 and < 35. J Gastrointest Surg. 2008;12:945–52.
Cohen RV, Pinheiro JC, Schiavon CA, et al. Effects of gastric bypass surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes and only mild obesity. Diabetes Care. 2012;35:1420–8.
Choi J, Digiorgi M, Milone L, et al. Outcomes of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding in patients with low body mass index. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2010;6:367–71.
Serrot FJ, Dorman RB, Miller CJ, et al. Comparative effectiveness of bariatric surgery and nonsurgical therapy in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus and body mass index < 35 kg/m2. Surgery. 2011;150:684–91.
Fried M, Ribaric G, Buchwald JN, et al. Metabolic surgery for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in patients with BMI < 35 kg/M2: an integrative review of early studies. Obes Surg. 2010;20:776–90.
Lee WJ, Chong K, Chen CY, et al. Diabetes remission and insulin secretion after gastric bypass in patients with body mass index <35 kg/M2. Obes Surg. 2011;21:889–95.
Demaria EJ, Winegar DA, Pate VW, et al. Early postoperative outcomes of metabolic surgery to treat diabetes from sites participating in the ASMBS bariatric surgery center of excellence program as reported in the Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database. Ann Surg. 2010;252:559–66.
Lee WJ, Ser KH, Chong K, et al. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for diabetes treatment in nonmorbidly obese patients: efficacy and change of insulin secretion. Surgery. 2010;147:664–9.
Buse JB, Caprio S, Cefalu WT, et al. How do we define cure of diabetes? Diabetes Care. 2009;32(11):2133–5.
Maggard-Gibbons M, Maglione M, Livhits M, et al. Bariatric surgery for weight loss and glycemic control in nonmorbidly obese adults with diabetes. JAMA. 2013;309(21):2250–61.
Ikramuddin S, Korner J, Lee W-J, et al. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass vs intensive medical management for thecontrol of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. JAMA. 2013;309(21):2240–9.
Apovian CM, Baker C, Ludwig DS, et al. Best practice guidelines in pediatric/adolescent weight loss surgery. Obes Res. 2005;13:274–82.
Inge TH, Krebs NF, Garcia VF, et al. Bariatric surgery for severely overweight adolescents: concerns and recommendations. Pediatrics. 2004;114:217–23.
Sugerman HJ, Sugerman EL, DeMaria EJ, et al. Bariatric surgery for severely obese adolescents. J Gastrointest Surg. 2003;7:102–7.
Dolan K, Creighton L, Hopkins G, et al. Laparoscopic gastric banding in morbidly obese adolescents. Obes Surg. 2003;13:101–4.
Stanford A, Glascock JM, Eid GM, et al. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in morbidly obese adolescents. J Pediatr Surg. 2003;38:430–3.
Widhalm K, Dietrich S, Prager G. Adjustable gastric banding surgery in morbidly obese adolescents: experience with 8 patients. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004;28 suppl 3:42S–8.
Silberhummer GR, Miller K, Kriwanek S, et al. laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding in adolescents: the Austrian experience. Obes Surg. 2006;16:1062–7.
Capella JF, Capella RF. Bariatric surgery in adolescence: is this the best age to operate? Obes Surg. 2003;13:826–32.
Patterson EJ, Urbach DR, Swanstrom LL. A comparison of diet and exercise therapy versus laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity: a decision analysis model. J Am Coll Surg. 2003;196:379–84.
Averbukh Y, Heshka S, El-Shoreya H, et al. Depression score predicts weight loss following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Obes Surg. 2003;13:833–6.
Ray EC, Nickels MW, Sayeed S, et al. Predicting success after gastric bypass: the role of psychosocial and behavioral factors. Surgery. 2003;134:555–64.
Charles SC. Psychiatric evaluation of morbidly obese patients. Gastroenterol Clin N Am. 1987;16:415–32.
Gertler R, Ramsey-Stewart G. Pre-operative psychiatric assessment of patients presenting for gastric bariatric surgery (surgical control of morbid obesity). Aust N Z J Surg. 1986;56:157–61.
Guisado JA, Vaz FJ, Lopez-Ibor JJ, et al. Gastric surgery and restraint from food as triggering factors of eating disorders in morbid obesity. Int J Eat Disord. 2002;31:97–100.
Sogg S, Mori DL. The Boston interview for gastric bypass: determining the psychological suitability of surgical candidates. Obes Surg. 2004;14:370–80.
Ferraro DR. Preparing patients for bariatric surgery-the clinical considerations. Clin Rev. 2004;14:57–63.
Naef M, Sadowski C, de Marco D, et al. Die vertikale Gastroplastik nach Mason zur Behandlung der morbiden Adipositas: Ergebnisse einer prospektiven klinischen Studie. Chirurg. 2000;71:448–55.
Wiesner W, Schob O, Hauser RS, et al. Adjustable laparoscopic gastric banding in patients with morbid obesity: radiographic management, results, and postoperative complications. Radiology. 2000;216:389–94.
Schumann R, Jones SB, Ortiz VE, et al. PulaiI, Ozawa ET, et al. Best practice recommendations for anesthetic perioperative care and pain management in weight loss surgery. Obes Res. 2005;13:254–66.
O’Keeffe T, Patterson EJ. Evidence supporting routine polysomnography before bariatric surgery. Obes Surg. 2004;14:23–6.
Sugerman HJ, Fairman RP, Baron PL, et al. Gastric surgery for respiratory insufficiency of obesity. Chest. 1986;90:81–6.
Sugerman HJ, Fairman RP, Sood RK, et al. Long-term effects of gastric surgery for treating respiratory insufficiency of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55 suppl 2:597S–601.
Miller K, Hell E. Laparoscopic surgical concepts of morbid obesity. Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2003;388:375–84.
Gonzalez R, Bowers SP, Venkatesh KR, et al. Preoperative factors predictive of complicated postoperative management after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity. Surg Endosc. 2003;17:1900–14.
Frey WC, Pilcher J. Obstructive sleep-related breathing disorders in patients evaluated for bariatric surgery. Obes Surg. 2003;13:676–83.
Sharaf RN, Weinshel EH, Bini EJ, et al. Radiologic assessment of the upper gastrointestinal tract: does it play an important preoperative role in bariatric surgery? Obes Surg. 2004;14:313–7.
Jaffin BW, Knoepflmacher P, Greenstein R. High prevalence of asymptomatic esophageal motility disorders among morbidly obese patients. Obes Surg. 1999;9:390–5.
Frigg A, Peterli R, Zynamon A, et al. Radiologic and endoscopic evaluation for laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding: preoperative and follow-up. Obes Surg. 2001;11:594–9.
Greenstein RJ, Nissan A, Jaffin B. Esophageal anatomy and function in laparoscopic gastric restrictive bariatric surgery: implications for patient selection. Obes Surg. 1998;8:199–206.
Verset D, Houben JJ, Gay F, et al. The place of upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy before and after vertical banded gastroplasty for morbid obesity. Dig Dis Sci. 1997;42:2333–7.
Saltzman E, Anderson W, Apovian CM, et al. Criteria for patient selection and multidisciplinary evaluation and treatment of the weight loss surgery patient. Obes Res. 2005;13:234–43.
Sogg S, DeAnna LM. Psychosocial evaluation for bariatric surgery: the Boston interview and opportunities for intervention. Obes Surg. 2009;19:369–77.
Heinberg LJ, Ashton K, Windover A. Moving beyond dichotomous psychological evaluation: the Cleveland Clinic Behavioral Rating System for weight loss surgery. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2010;6:185–90.
Greenberg I, Sogg S, Perna FM. Behavioral and psychological care in weight loss surgery: best practice update. Obesity. 2009;17:880–4.
Mahony D. Psychological assessments of bariatric surgery patients. Development, reliability, and exploratory factor analysis of the PsyBari. Obes Surg. 2011;21:1395–406.
Fabricatore AN, Crerand CE, Wadden TA, et al. How do mental health professionals evaluate candidates for bariatric surgery? Survey results. Obes Surg. 2005;15:567–73.
Peacock JC, Zizzi SJ. An assessment of patient behavioral requirements pre- and post-surgery at accredited weight loss surgical centers. Obes Surg. 2011;21:1950–7.
Bauchowitz AU, Gonder-Frederick LA, Olbrisch ME, et al. Psychosocial evaluation of bariatric surgery candidates: a survey of present practices. Psychosom Med. 2005;67:825–32.
van Hout GC, Jakimowicz JJ, Fortuin FA, Pelle AJ, van Heck GL. Weight loss and eating behavior following vertical banded gastroplasty. Obes Surg. 2007;17:1226–1234.
Kofman MD, Lent MR, Swencionis C. Maladaptive eating paterns, quality of life, and weight outcomes following gastric bypass: results of an internet survey. Obesity. 2010;18:1938–43.
Rutledge T, Groez LM, Savu M. Psychiatric factors and weight loss patterns following gastric bypass surgery in a veteran population. Obes Surg. 2011;21:29–35.
Odom J, Zalesin KC, Washington TL. Behavioral predictors of weight regain after bariatric surgery. Obes Surg. 2010;20:349–56.
Colles SL, Dixon JB, O'Brien PE. Grazing and loss of control related to eating: two high-risk factors following bariatric surgery. Behav Psychol Obes. 2008;16(3):615–22.
Kruseman M, Leimgruber A, Zumbach F, et al. Dietary, weight, and psychological changes among patients with obesity, 8 years after gastric bypass. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010;110:527–34.
de Zwaan M, Mitchell JE, Howell LM, et al. Characteristics of morbidly obese patients before gastric bypass surgery. Compr Psychiatry. 2003;44:428–34.
Hsu LK, Benotti PN, Dwyer J, et al. W. Nonsurgical factors that influence the outcome of bariatric surgery: a review. Psychosom Med. 1998;60:338–46.
Guisado Macias JA, Vaz Leal FJ. Psychopathological differences between morbidly obese binge eaters and non-binge eaters after bariatric surgery. Eat Weight Disord. 2003;8:315–8.
Sabbioni ME, Dickson MH, Eychmueller S, et al. Intermediate results of health related quality of life after vertical banded gastroplasty. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002;26:277–80.
Toussi R, Fujioka K, Coleman KJ. Pre-and postsurgery behavioral compliance, patient health, and postbariatric surgical weight loss. Obesity. 2009;17:966–1002.
Sarwer DB, Wadden TA, Fabricatore AN. Psychosocial and behavioral aspects of bariatric surgery. Obes Res. 2005;13:639–48.
de Zwaan M, Hilbert A, Swan-Kremeier L, et al. Comprehensive interview assessment of eating behavior 18–35 months after gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2010;6:79–87.
White MA, Kalarchian M, Masheb RM, et al. Loss of control over eating predicts outcomes in bariatric surgery patients: a porspective, 24-month follow-up study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010;71:175–84.
Sarwer DB, Dilks RJ, West-Smith L. Dietary intake and eating behavior after bariatric surgery: threats to weight loss maintenance and strategies for success. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2011;7:644–51.
Ashton K, Heinberg L, Windover A, et al. Positive response to binge eating intervention enhances postsurgical weight loss and adherence. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2011;7:315–20.
Korner J, Inabnet W, Febres G, et al. Prospective study of gut hormone and metabolic changes after adjustable gastric banding and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Int J Obes (Lond). 2009;33:786–95.
Laferrere B, Teixeira J, McGinty J, et al. Effect of weight loss by gastric bypass surgery versus hypocaloric diet on glucose and incretin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:2479–85.
Bose M, Teixeira J, Olivan B, et al. Weight loss and incretin responsiveness improve glucose control independently after gastric bypass surgery. J Diabetes. 2010;2:47–55.
Vidal J, Ibarzabal A, Romero F, et al. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome following sleeve gastrectomy in severely obese subjects. Obes Surg. 2008;18:1077–82.
Leslie DB, Dorman RB, Serrot FJ, et al. Efficacy of the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass compared to medically managed controls in meeting the American Diabetes Association composite end point goals for management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obes Surg. 2012;22:367–74.
Carlsson LM, Peltonen M, Ahlin S, et al. Bariatric surgery and prevention of type 2 diabetes in Swedish obese subjects. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:695–704.
Arterburn DE, Bogart A, Sherwood NE, et al. A multisite study of long-term remission and relapse of type 2 diabetes mellitus following gastric bypass. Obes Surg. 2013. doi:10.1007/s11695-012-0802-1.
Laferrere B. Effect of gastric bypass surgery on the incretins. Diabetes Metab. 2009;35:513–7.
Kashyap SR, Daud S, Kelly KR, et al. Acute effects of gastric bypass versus gastric restrictive surgery on beta-cell function and insulinotropic hormones in severely obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Int J Obes (Lond) 2009. 2010;34:462–71.
Peterli R, Wolnerhanssen B, Peters T, et al. Improvement in glucose metabolism after bariatric surgery: comparison of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: a prospective randomized trial. Ann Surg. 2009;250:234–41.
Mingrone G, Castagneto-Gissey L. Mechanisms of early improvement/resolution of type 2 diabetes after bariatric surgery. Diabetes Metab. 2009;35:518–23.
Briatore L, Salani B, Andraghetti G, et al. Beta-cell function improvement after biliopancreatic diversion in subjects with type 2 diabetes and morbid obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010;18:932–6.
Briatore L, Salani B, Andraghetti G, et al. Restoration of acute insulin response in T2DM subjects 1 month after biliopancreatic diversion. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008;16:77–81.
Talebpour M, Amoli BS. Laparoscopic total gastric vertical plication in morbid obesity. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Technol A. 2007;17:793–8.
Skrekas G, Antiochos K, Stafyla VK. Laparoscopic gastric greater curvature plication: results and complications in a series of 135 patients. Obes Surg. 2011;21:1657–63.
Ramos A, Galvao Neto M, Galvao M, et al. Laparoscopic greater curvature plication: initial results of an alternative restrictive bariatric procedure. Obes Surg. 2010;20:913–8.
Brethauer SA, Harris JL, Kroh M, et al. Laparoscopic gastric plication for treatment of severe obesity. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2011;7:15–22.
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) Interventional Procedure Guidance 432: Laparoscopic gastric plication for the treatment of severe obesity. www.guidance.nice.org.uk/pg432, 2012
Fried M, Dolezalova K, Buchwald JN, et al. Laparoscopic greater curvature plication (LGCP) for the treatment of morbid obesity in a series of 244 patiens. Obes Surg. 2012;22:1298–307.
Sánchez-Pernaute A, Rubio MA, Pérez-Aguirre ME, et al. Single-anastomosis duodenoileal bypass with sleeve gastrectomy: metabolic improvement and weight loss in first 100 patients. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2012. doi:10.1016/j.soard.2012.07.018.
Reoch J, Mottillo S, Shimony A, et al. Safety of laparoscopic vs open bariatric surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Surg. 2011;146:1314–22.
Kelly J, Tarnoff M, Shikora S, et al. Best practice recommendations for surgical care in weight loss surgery. Obes Res. 2005;13:227–33.
Brolin RE. Bariatric surgery and long-term control of morbid obesity. JAMA. 2002;288:2793–6.
Murr MM, Balsiger BM, Kennedy FP, et al. Malabsorptive procedures for severe obesity: comparison of pancreaticobiliary bypass and very very long limb Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. J Gastrointest Surg. 1999;3:607–12.
Scopinaro N, Gianetta E, Adami GF, et al. Biliopancreatic diversion for obesity at eighteen years. Surgery. 1996;119:261–8.
Scopinaro N, Marinari GM, Camerini G. Laparoscopic standard biliopancreatic diversion: technique and preliminary results. Obes Surg. 2002;12:362–5.
Howard L, Malone M, Michalek A, et al. AlgerS, Van Woert J. Gastric bypass and vertical banded gastroplasty – a prospective randomized comparison and 5-year follow-up. Obes Surg. 1995;5:55–60.
van Dielen FM, Soeters PB, de Brauw LM, et al. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding versus open vertical banded gastroplasty: a rospective randomized trial. Obes Surg. 2005;15:1292–8.
Brolin RE, Kenler HA, Gorman JH, et al. Long-limb gastric bypass in the superobese. A prospective randomized study. Ann Surg. 1992;215:387–95.
Podnos YD, Jimenez JC, Wilson SE, et al. Complications after laparoscopic gastric bypass: a review of 3464 cases. Arch Surg. 2003;138:957–61.
Perugini RA, Mason R, Czerniach DR, et al. Predictors of complication and suboptimal weight loss after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: a series of 188 patients. Arch Surg. 2003;138:541–5.
Nguyen NT, Rivers R, Wolfe BM. Factors associated with operative outcomes in laparoscopic gastric bypass. J Am Coll Surg. 2003;197:548–55.
Ren CJ, Weiner M, Allen JW. Favorable early results of gastric banding for morbid obesity: the American experience. Surg Endosc. 2004;18:543–6.
Rubenstein RB. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding at a US center with up to 3-year follow-up. Obes Surg. 2002;12:380–4.
O’Brien PE, Dixon JB, Brown W, et al. The laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (Lap-Band): a prospective study of medium-term effects on weight, health and quality of life. Obes Surg. 2002;12:652–60.
Spivak H, Favretti F. Avoiding postoperative complications with the LAP-BAND system. Am J Surg. 2002;184 suppl 2:31S–7.
Belachew M, Belva PH, Desaive C. Long-term results of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding for treatment of morbid obesity. Obes Surg. 2002;12:564–8.
DeMaria EJ, Sugerman HJ. A critical look at laparoscopic adjustable silicone gastric banding for surgical treatment of morbid obesity: does it measure up? Surg Endosc. 2000;14:697–9.
Favretti F, Cadiere GB, Segato G, et al. Laparoscopic adjustable silicone gastric banding (Lap-Band): how to avoid complications. Obes Surg. 1997;7:352–8.
Fried M, Miller K, Kormanova K. Literature review of comparative studies of complications with Swedish band and Lap-Band. Obes Surg. 2004;14:256–60.
Fried M, Peskova M, Kasalicky M. Assessment of the outcome of laparoscopic nonadjustable gastric banding and stoma adjustable gastric anding: surgeon's and patient's view. Obes Surg. 1998;8:45–8.
Hall JC, Watts JM, O’Brien PE, et al. Gastric surgery for morbid obesity. The Adelaide Study. Ann Surg. 1990;211:419–27.
Laws HL, Piantadosi S. Superior gastric reduction procedure for morbid obesity: a prospective, randomized trial. Ann Surg. 1981;193:334–40.
Bajardi G, Ricevuto G, Mastrandrea G, et al. Surgical treatment of morbid obesity with biliopancreatic diversion and gastric banding: report on an 8-year experience involving 235 cases. Ann Chir. 2000;125:155–62.
Chapman AE, Kiroff G, Game P, et al. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding in the treatment of obesity: a systematic literature review. Surgery. 2004;135:326–51.
Dolan K, Hatzifotis M, Newbury L, et al. A comparison of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and biliopancreatic diversion in superobesity. Obes Surg. 2004;14:165–9.
Scopinaro N, Adami GF, Papadia FS, et al. Effects of biliopancreatic diversion on type 2 diabetes in patients with BMI 25 to 35. Ann Surg. 2011;253(4):699–703.
Ciangura C, Bouillot JL, Lloret-Linares C, et al. Dynamics of change in total and regional body composition after gastric bypass in obese patients. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010;18:760–5.
Jones DB, Provost DA, DeMaria EJ, et al. Optimal management of the morbidly obese patient SAGES appropriateness conference statement. Surg Endosc. 2004;18:1029–37.
American Society for Bariatric Surgery: Bariatric surgery: ASBS guidelines. www.lapsurgery.com (2004). Accessed 10 Apr 2013.
Society of American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons. Guidelines for institutions granting bariatric privileges utilizing laparoscopic techniques. SAGES and the SAGES Bariatric Task Force. Surg Endosc. 2003;17:2037–40.
Flum DR, Dellinger EP. Impact of gastric bypass operation on survival: a population-based analysis. J Am Coll Surg. 2004;199:543–51.
Schauer P, Ikramuddin S, Hamad G, et al. The learning curve for laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is 100 cases. Surg Endosc. 2003;17:212–5.
Wittgrove AC, Clark GW. Laparoscopic gastric bypass, Roux-en-Y-500 patients: technique and results with 3–60 months follow-up. Obes Surg. 2000;10:233–9.
Higa KD, Boone KB, Ho T, et al. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric-bypass for morbid obesity: technique and preliminary results of our first 400 patients. Arch Surg. 2000;135:1029–33.
Courcoulas A, Schuchert M, Gatti G, et al. The relationship of surgeon and hospital volume to outcome after gastric bypass surgery in Pennsylvania: a 3-year summary. Surgery. 2003;134:613–23.
Sarwer DB, Moore RH, Spitzer JC, et al. A pilot study investigating ther efficacy of postoperative dietary counseling to improve outcomes after bariatric surgery. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2012; Mar 21. PMID 22551576.
Kulick D, Hark L, Deen D. The bariatric surgery patient: a growing role for registered dietitians. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010;110:593–9.
Ziegler O, Sirveaux MA, Brunaud L, et al. Medical follow up after bariatric surgery: nutritional and drug issues. General recommendations for the prevention and treatment of nutritional deficiencies. Diabetes Metab. 2009;35:544–57.
Faria SL. Dietary protein intake and bariatric surgery. Obes Surg. 2011;21:1798–805.
Raftopoulos I. Protein intake compliance with morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery and its effect on weight loss and biochecmical parameters. SOARD. 2011;7:733–42.
Billy H, Okerson T. Changes in body composition following gastric bypass or gastric banding. AACE 21st Annual Scientific and Clinical Congress, May 23–27, 2012, Philadephia PA; Abstract #1315.
Bavaresco M, Paganini S, Pereira Lima T, et al. Nutritional course of patients submitted to bariatric surgery. Obes Surg. 2010;20:716–21.
Andreu A, Moize V, Rodriguez L, et al. Protein intake, body composition, and protein status following bariatric surgery. Obes Surg. 2010;20:1509–15.
Moize VL, Pi-Sunyer X, Mochari H, et al. Nutritional pyramid for post-gastric bypass patients. Obes Surg. 2010;20:1133–41.
Padwal R, Brocks D, Sharma AM. A systematic review of drug absorption following bariatric surgery and its theoretical implications. Obes Rev. 2010;11:41–50.
Miller AD, Smith KM. Medication and nutrient administration considerations after bariatric surgery. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2006;63:1852–7.
Ceppa EP, Ceppa DP, Omotosho PA, et al. Algorithm to diagnose etiology of hypoglycemia after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity: case series and review of the literature. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2011 2012;8:641–7.
Cui Y, Elahi D, Andersen DK. Advances in the etiology and management of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. J Gastrointest Surg. 2011;15:1879–88.
Bernard B, Kline GA, Service FJ. Hypoglycemia following upper gastrointestinal surgery: case report and review of the literature. BMC Gastroenterol. 2010;10:77–80.
Spanakis E, Gragnoli C. Successful medical management of status post-Roux-en-Y-gastric-bypass hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Obes Surg. 2009;19:1333–4.
Moreira RO, Moreira RBM, Machado NAM, et al. Post-prandial hypoglycemia after bariatric surgery: pharmacological treatment with verapamil and acarbose. Obes Surg. 2008;18:1618–21.
Geerts WH, Bergqvist D, Pineo GF, et al. Prevention of venous thromboembolism: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Chest. 2008;133:381S–453.
Magee CJ, Barry J, Javed S, et al. Extended thromboprophylaxis reduces incidence of postoperative venous thromboembolism in laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2010;6:322–5.
Raftopoulos I, Martindale C, Cronin A, et al. The effect of extended post-discharge chemical thromboprophylaxis on venous thromboembolism rates after bariatric surgery: a prospective comparison trial. Surg Endosc. 2008;22:2384–91.
Winegar DA, Sherif B, Pate V, et al. Venous thromboembolism after bariatric surgery performed by Bariatric Surgery Center of Excellence participants: analysis of the Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2011;7:181–8.
The ASMBS Clinical Issues Committee. ASMBS Guideline on the prevention and detection of gastrointestinal leak after gastric bypass including the role of imaging and surgical exploration. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2009;5:293–6.
Warschkow R, Tarantino I, Folie P, et al. C-reactive protein 2 days after laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery reliably indicates leaks and moderately predicts morbidity. J Gastrointest Surg. 2012;16:1128–35.
Lyass S, Khalili TM, Cunneen S, et al. Radiological studies after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: routine or selective? Am Surg. 2004;70:918–21.
Carussi LR, Turner MA, Conklin RC, et al. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity: evaluation of postoperative extraluminal leaks with upper gastrointestinal series. Radiology. 2006;238:119–27.
Shen R, Dugay G, Rajaram K, et al. Impact of patient follow-up on weight loss after bariatric surgery. Obes Surg. 2004;14:514–9.
Favretti F, O’Brien PE, Dixon JB. Patient management after LAP-BAND placement. Am J Surg. 2002;184 suppl 2:38S–41.
Busetto L, Pisent C, Segato G, et al. The influence of a new timing strategy of band adjustment on the vomiting frequency and the food consumption of obese women operated with laparoscopic adjustable silicone gastric banding (LAP-BAND). Obes Surg. 1997;7:505–12.
Rabkin RA, Rabkin JM, Metcalf B, et al. Nutritional markers following duodenal switch for morbid obesity. Obes Surg. 2004;14:84–90.
Ledikwe JH, Smiciklas-Wright H, Mitchell DC, et al. Nutritional risk assessment and obesity in rural older adults: a sex difference. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77:551–8.
Ledikwe JH, Smiciklas-Wright H, Mitchell DC, et al. Dietary patterns of rural older adults are associated with weight and nutritional status. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004;52:589–95.
MacLean LD, Rhode B, Shizgal HN. Nutrition after vertical banded gastroplasty. Ann Surg. 1987;206:555–63.
Hamoui N, Anthone G, Crookes PF. Calcium metabolism in the morbidly obese. Obes Surg. 2004;14:9–12.
Faintuch J, Matsuda M, Cruz ME, et al. Severe proteincalorie malnutrition after bariatric procedures. Obes Surg. 2004;14:175–81.
Baltasar A, Serra C, Perez N, et al. Clinical hepatic impairment after the duodenal switch. Obes Surg. 2004;14:77–83.
Boylan LM, Sugerman HJ, Driskell JA. Vitamin E, vitamin B-6, Vitamin B-12, and folate status of gastric bypass surgery patients. J Am Diet Assoc. 1988;88:579–85.
Cannizzo Jr F, Kral JG. Obesity surgery: a model of programmed undernutrition. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 1998;1:363–8.
Hamoui N, Kim K, Anthone G, et al. The significance of elevated levels of parathyroid hormone in patients with morbid obesity before and after bariatric surgery. Arch Surg. 2003;138:891–7.
Skroubis G, Sakellaropoulos G, Pouggouras K, et al. Comparison of nutritional deficiencies after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and after biliopancreatic diversion with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Obes Surg. 2002;12:551–8.
Slater GH, Ren CJ, Siegel N, et al. Serum fat-soluble vitamin deficiency and abnormal calcium metabolism after malabsorptive bariatric surgery. J Gastrointest Surg. 2004;8:48–55.
Halverson JD. Micronutrient deficiencies after gastric bypass for morbid obesity. Am Surg. 1986;52:594–8.
Avinoah E, Ovnat A, Charuzi I. Nutritional status seven years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Surgery. 1992;111:137–42.
Brolin RE, Gorman RC, Milgrim LM, et al. Multivitamin prophylaxis in prevention of postgastric bypass vitamin and mineral deficiencies. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1991;15:661–7.
Rhode BM, Arseneau P, Cooper BA, et al. Vitamin B-12 deficiency after gastric surgery for obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;63:103–9.
Schilling RF, Gohdes PN, Hardie GH. Vitamin B12 deficiency after gastric bypass surgery for obesity. Ann Intern Med. 1984;101:501–2.
Simon SR, Zemel R, Betancourt S, et al. Hematologic Complications of gastric bypass for morbid obesity. South Med J. 1989;2:1108–10.
Brolin RE, Gorman JH, Gorman RC, et al. Are vitamin B12 and folate deficiency clinically important after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass? J Gastrointest Surg. 1998;2:436–42.
Halverson JD. Metabolic risk of obesity surgery and long term follow-up. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55 suppl 2:602S–5.
Goode LR, Brolin RE, Chowdhury HA, et al. Bone and gastric bypass surgery: effects of dietary calcium and vitamin D. Obes Res. 2004;12:40–7.
Coates PS, Fernstrom JD, Fernstrom MH, et al. Gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity leads to an increase in bone turnover and a decrease in bone mass. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:1061–5.
Shaker JL, Norton AJ, Woods MF, et al. Secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteopenia in women following gastric exclusion surgery for obesity. Osteoporos Int. 1991;1:177–81.
Abu-Abeid S, Keidar A, Gavert N, et al. The clinical spectrum of band erosion following laparoscopic adjustable silicone gastric banding for morbid obesity. Surg Endosc. 2003;17:861–3.
Jones Jr KB. Revisional bariatric surgery-safe and effective. Obes Surg. 2001;11:183–9.
Weber M, Muller MK, Michel JM, et al. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, but not rebanding, should be proposed as rescue procedure for patients with failed laparoscopic gastric banding. Ann Surg. 2003;238:827–34.
Dolan K, Fielding G. Bilio pancreatic diversion following failure of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Surg Endosc. 2004;18:60–3.
Chevallier JM, Zinzindohoue F, Douard R, et al. Complications after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding for morbid obesity: experience with 1,000 patients over 7 years. Obes Surg. 2004;14:407–14.
Iovino P, Angrisani L, Tremolaterra F, et al. Abnormal esophageal acid exposure is common in morbidly obese patients and improves after a successful lap-band system implantation. Surg Endosc. 2002;16:1631–5.
Niville E, Dams A. Late pouch dilation after laparoscopic adjustable gastric and esophagogastric banding: incidence, treatment, and outcome. Obes Surg. 1999;9:381–4.
Sanyal AJ, Sugerman HJ, Kellum JM, et al. Stomal complications of gastric bypass: incidence and outcome of therapy. Am J Gastroenterol. 1992;87:165–9.
Weiner R, Theodoridou S, Weiner S. Failure of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy—further procedure? Obes Facts. 2011;4 Suppl 1:42–6.
Barba CA, Butensky MS, Lorenzo M, et al. Endoscopic dilation of gastroesophageal anastomosis stricture after gastric bypass. Surg Endosc. 2003;17:416–20.
Schauer PR, Ikrammudin S, Gourash W, et al. Outcomes after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity. Ann Surg. 2000;232:515–29.
Spaulding L. Treatment of dilated gastrojejunos tomy with sclerotherapy. Obes Surg. 2003;13:254–7.
Anthone GJ, Lord RV, DeMeester TR, et al. The duodenal switch operation for the treatment of morbid obesity. Ann Surg. 2003;238:618–28.
Bloomberg RD, Urbach DR. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for severe gastroesophageal reflux after vertical banded gastroplasty. Obes Surg. 2002;12:408–11.
Cowan Jr GS. Bariatric surgical utterances: need they be dogmatic? Obes Surg. 1999;9:3–4.
Cowan Jr GS. Obligations of the bariatric surgeon. Obes Surg. 2000;10:498–501.