What are Gastric Banding Patients Eating One Year Post-Surgery?
- 558 Downloads
There is a paucity of evidence-based dietary management guidelines for patients post-laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, including no consensus recommendations for macronutrient intake. We examined the macronutrient intake across a multi-centre cohort of post-bariatric surgery patients and compared these intakes to post-bariatric surgery and population-based dietary guidelines.
Two hundred and fifteen patients from three bariatric surgery centres in Melbourne, Australia were invited to complete a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire 12 months post-operatively.
Energy intakes of the 52 participants ranged from 1,140 to 13,200 kJ/day, with an average of 4,890 kJ/day (±2,360 kJ/day). Many patients did not meet minimum population recommendations for macronutrients. The average fibre intake was only 14 g/day (compared to the recommendations of 25 g for women and 30 g for men). The average diet 1 year post-operatively was 36 % total fat compared to the recommendations of 20–25 %, with 14 % of intake from saturated fat.
Patients' dietary intakes vary significantly 1 year post-laparoscopic adjustable band surgery, with many patients not meeting recommendations. These results suggest that patients decrease their total energy intake; however, eating habits may not improve as they consume a diet high in saturated fat. It is recommended that all patients receive dietary education about diet quality post-laparoscopic adjustable gastric band surgery to assist them in improving their diet quality as well as quantity for optimal health and weight loss. Specific international guidelines for nutrient intakes for people undergoing bariatric surgery are needed.
KeywordsBariatric surgery Nutrition Diet Gastric band Macronutrient
Conflict of Interest
Melanie McGrice owns a private dietetic practice in Melbourne and has accepted paid speaking engagements on bariatric surgery for Nestle and Diabetes Australia. Judi Porter declares no competing interests.
- 7.Dietitians Association of Australia. Best practice guidelines for the treatment of overweight and obesity. 2005. Available from http://daa.collaborative.net.au/files/DINER/Obesity%20Guidelines%20(Final).pdf. Accessed 4 Jan 2011.
- 8.Cancervic.org [Internet]. Melbourne: Cancer Council Victoria Dietary Questionnaires; 2011. Available from http://www.cancervic.org.au/ [updated 2011 Dec 2; cited 2011 Dec 12].
- 9.Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand including Recommended Dietary Intakes. Department of Health and Ageing National Health and Medical Research Council; 2006. Available from www.nhmrc.gov.au/_files_nhmrc/publications/attachments/n35.pdf. Accessed 12 Dec 2011.
- 11.St Jeor ST, Howard BV, Prewitt TE, Bovee V, Bazzarre T, Eckel RH, Nutrition Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism of the American Heart Association. Dietary protein and weight reduction: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism of the American Heart Association. Am Heart Assoc. 2001;104:1869–74.Google Scholar
- 13.Tsigos C, Hainer V, Basdevant A, Finer N, Fried M, Mathus-Vliegen E, Micic D, Maislos M, Roman G, Schutz Y, Toplak H, Zahorska-Markiewicz B, for the Obesity Management Task Force of the European Association for the Study of Obesity. Management of obesity in adults: European clinical practice guidelines. Obes Facts. 2008;1:106–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 14.Rhode B, MacLean L. Vitamin and mineral supplementation after gastric bypass. In: Deitel M, editor. Update: surgery for the morbidly obese patient. Toronto: FD-Communications; 2000. p. 161–70.Google Scholar
- 15.McGrice M. The role of gastric banding and its implications. Nutrition Management in General Practice. 2011;1:6–8.Google Scholar
- 18.Mechanick JI, Kushner RF, Sugerman HJ, Gonzalez-Campoy M, Callazo-Clavell ML, Guven S, Spitz AF, Apovian CM, Livingston EH, Brolin R, Sarwer DB, Anderson WA, Dixon J. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, The Obesity Society, and American Society for Metabolic & Bariatric Surgery Medical guidelines for clinical practice for the perioperative nutritional, metabolic, and nonsurgical support of the bariatric surgery patient. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2008;4(5):S109–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.Australian Guidelines: To reduce health risks from drinking alcohol. Canberra: National Health and Medical Research Council; 2009. Available from http://www.nhmrc.gov.au/guidelines/publications/ds10. Accessed 12 Dec 2011.