Obesity Surgery

, Volume 22, Issue 1, pp 70–89 | Cite as

Preoperative Predictors of Weight Loss Following Bariatric Surgery: Systematic Review

  • Masha LivhitsEmail author
  • Cheryl Mercado
  • Irina Yermilov
  • Janak A. Parikh
  • Erik Dutson
  • Amir Mehran
  • Clifford Y. Ko
  • Melinda Maggard Gibbons
Clinical Research



Obesity affects 32% of adults in the USA. Surgery generates substantial weight loss, but 20–30% fails to achieve successful weight loss. Our objective was to identify preoperative psychosocial factors associated with weight loss following bariatric surgery.


We performed a literature search of PubMed® and the Cochrane Database of Reviews of Effectiveness between 1988 and April 2010. Articles were screened for bariatric surgery and weight loss if they included a preoperative predictor of weight loss: body mass index (BMI), preoperative weight loss, eating disorders, or psychiatric disorder/substance abuse. One thousand seven titles were reviewed, 534 articles screened, and 115 included in the review.


Factors that may be positively associated with weight loss after surgery include mandatory preoperative weight loss (7 of 14 studies with positive association). Factors that may be negatively associated with weight loss include preoperative BMI (37 out of 62 studies with negative association), super-obesity (24 out of 33 studies), and personality disorders (7 out of 14 studies). Meta-analysis revealed a decrease of 10.1% excess weight loss (EWL) for super-obese patients (95% confidence interval (CI) [3.7–16.5%]), though there was significant heterogeneity in the meta-analysis, and an increase of 5.9% EWL for patients with binge eating at 12 months after surgery (95% CI [1.9–9.8%]).


Further studies are necessary to investigate whether preoperative factors can predict a clinically meaningful difference in weight loss after bariatric surgery. The identification of predictive factors may improve patient selection and help develop interventions targeting specific needs of patients.


Bariatric surgery Predictors Weight loss Preoperative Outcomes 



We would like to acknowledge the generous contribution of Paul G. Shekelle to the design of our project and critical review of the analysis. The VA Department of Surgery provided support for Dr. Livhits and Dr. Gibbons. Dr. Gibbons’s time was supported in part by a grant from the Robert Wood Johnson Physician Faculty Scholars program.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.




  1. 1.
    Hedley AA, Ogden CL, Johnson CL, et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children, adolescents, and adults, 1999–2002. JAMA. 2004;291:2847–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Buchwald H, Avidor Y, Braunwald E, et al. Bariatric surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2004;292:1724–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Maggard MA, Shugarman LR, Suttorp M, et al. Meta-analysis: surgical treatment of obesity. Ann Intern Med. 2005;142:547–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kinzl JF, Schrattenecker M, Traweger C, et al. Psychosocial predictors of weight loss after bariatric surgery. Obes Surg. 2006;16:1609–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hsu LK, Benotti PN, Dwyer J, et al. Nonsurgical factors that influence the outcome of bariatric surgery: a review. Psychosom Med. 1998;60:338–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    van Hout GC, Verschure SK, van Heck GL. Psychosocial predictors of success following bariatric surgery. Obes Surg. 2005;15:552–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Melton GB, Steele KE, Schweitzer MA, et al. Suboptimal weight loss after gastric bypass surgery: correlation of demographics, comorbidities, and insurance status with outcomes. J Gastrointest Surg. 2008;12:250–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lutfi R, Torquati A, Sekhar N, et al. Predictors of success after laparoscopic gastric bypass: a multivariate analysis of socioeconomic factors. Surg Endosc. 2006;20:864–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Latner JD, Wetzler S, Goodman ER, et al. Gastric bypass in a low-income, inner-city population: eating disturbances and weight loss. Obes Res. 2004;12:956–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Silver HJ, Torquati A, Jensen GL, et al. Weight, dietary and physical activity behaviors two years after gastric bypass. Obes Surg. 2006;16:859–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hernandez-Estefania R, Gonzalez-Lamuno D, Garcia-Ribes M, et al. Variables affecting BMI evolution at 2 and 5 years after vertical banded gastroplasty. Obes Surg. 2000;10:160–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bueter M, Thalheimer A, Lager C, et al. Who benefits from gastric banding? Obes Surg. 2007;17:1608–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Israel A, Sebbag G, Fraser D, et al. Nutritional behavior as a predictor of early success after vertical gastroplasty. Obes Surg. 2005;15:88–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Champault A, Duwat O, Polliand C, et al. Quality of life after laparoscopic gastric banding: prospective study (152 cases) with a follow-up of 2 years. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 2006;16:131–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dixon JB, Dixon ME, O’Brien PE. Pre-operative predictors of weight loss at 1-year after Lap-Band surgery. Obes Surg. 2001;11:200–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chau WY, Schmidt HJ, Kouli W, et al. Patient characteristics impacting excess weight loss following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Obes Surg. 2005;15:346–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pajecki D, Dalcanalle L, Souza de Oliveira CP, et al. Follow-up of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients at 5 or more years postoperatively. Obes Surg. 2007;17:601–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Alvarado R, Alami RS, Hsu G, et al. The impact of preoperative weight loss in patients undergoing laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Obes Surg. 2005;15:1282–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Favretti F, Segato G, Ashton D, et al. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding in 1,791 consecutive obese patients: 12-year results. Obes Surg. 2007;17:168–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sugerman HJ, Londrey GL, Kellum JM, et al. Weight loss with vertical banded gastroplasty and Roux-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity with selective versus random assignment. Am J Surg. 1989;157:93–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Anthone GJ, Lord RV, DeMeester TR, et al. The duodenal switch operation for the treatment of morbid obesity. Ann Surg. 2003;238:618–27. discussion 627–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Biron S, Hould FS, Lebel S, et al. Twenty years of biliopancreatic diversion: what is the goal of the surgery? Obes Surg. 2004;14:160–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Busetto L, Segato G, De Marchi F, et al. Outcome predictors in morbidly obese recipients of an adjustable gastric band. Obes Surg. 2002;12:83–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    MacLean LD, Rhode BM, Nohr CW. Late outcome of isolated gastric bypass. Ann Surg. 2000;231:524–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ma Y, Pagoto SL, Olendzki BC, et al. Predictors of weight status following laparoscopic gastric bypass. Obes Surg. 2006;16:1227–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Carlin AM, O’Connor EA, Genaw JA, et al. Preoperative weight loss is not a predictor of postoperative weight loss after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2008;4:481–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Barrash J, Rodriguez EM, Scott DH, et al. The utility of MMPI subtypes for the prediction of weight loss after bariatric surgery. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Int J Obes. 1987;11:115–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hatoum IJ, Stein HK, Merrifield BF, et al. Capacity for physical activity predicts weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009;17:92–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Farkas DT, Vemulapalli P, Haider A, et al. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is safe and effective in patients with a BMI > or =60. Obes Surg. 2005;15:486–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Biertho L, Steffen R, Ricklin T, et al. Laparoscopic gastric bypass versus laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding: a comparative study of 1,200 cases. J Am Coll Surg. 2003;197:536–44. discussion 544–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jan JC, Hong D, Pereira N, et al. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding versus laparoscopic gastric bypass for morbid obesity: a single-institution comparison study of early results. J Gastrointest Surg. 2005;9:30–9. discussion 40–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bloomston M, Zervos EE, Camps MA, et al. Outcome following bariatric surgery in super versus morbidly obese patients: does weight matter? Obes Surg. 1997;7:414–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fein M, Bueter M, Jurowich C, et al. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery in the obesity center Wuerzburg—patient selection and results. Obes Facts. 2009;2 Suppl 1:54–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Campos GM, Rabl C, Mulligan K, et al. Factors associated with weight loss after gastric bypass. Arch Surg. 2008;143:877–83. discussion 884.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Puzziferri N, Nakonezny PA, Livingston EH, et al. Variations of weight loss following gastric bypass and gastric band. Ann Surg. 2008;248:233–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gould JC, Garren MJ, Boll V, et al. Laparoscopic gastric bypass: risks vs. benefits up to two years following surgery in super-super obese patients. Surgery. 2006;140:524–9. discussion 529–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Diniz Mde F, Passos VM, Barreto SM, et al. Different criteria for assessment of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass success: does only weight matter? Obes Surg. 2009;19:1384–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tichansky DS, DeMaria EJ, Fernandez AZ, et al. Postoperative complications are not increased in super-super obese patients who undergo laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Surg Endosc. 2005;19:939–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Choban PS, Flancbaum L. The effect of Roux limb lengths on outcome after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: a prospective, randomized clinical trial. Obes Surg. 2002;12:540–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Thalheimer A, Bueter M, Wierlemann A, et al. Predictability of outcome in laparoscopic gastric banding. Obes Facts. 2009;2 Suppl 1:27–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Toouli J, Kow L, Ramos AC, et al. International multicenter study of safety and effectiveness of Swedish Adjustable Gastric Band in 1-, 3-, and 5-year follow-up cohorts. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2009;5:598–609.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Chen E, Roehrig M, Herbozo S, et al. Compensatory eating disorder behaviors and gastric bypass surgery outcome. Int J Eat Disord. 2009;42:363–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Chen EY, McCloskey MS, Doyle P, et al. Body mass index as a predictor of 1-year outcome in gastric bypass surgery. Obes Surg. 2009;19:1240–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Vishne TH, Ramadan E, Alper D, et al. Long-term follow-up and factors influencing success of silastic ring vertical gastroplasty. Dig Surg. 2004;21:134–40. discussion 140–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Colles SL, Dixon JB, O’Brien PE. Hunger control and regular physical activity facilitate weight loss after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Obes Surg. 2008;18:833–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Korenkov M, Kneist W, Heintz A, et al. Laparoscopic gastric banding as a universal method for the treatment of patients with morbid obesity. Obes Surg. 2004;14:1123–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Averbukh Y, Heshka S, El-Shoreya H, et al. Depression score predicts weight loss following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Obes Surg. 2003;13:833–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Black DW, Goldstein RB, Mason EE. Psychiatric diagnosis and weight loss following gastric surgery for obesity. Obes Surg. 2003;13:746–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Larsen JK, Geenen R, Maas C, et al. Personality as a predictor of weight loss maintenance after surgery for morbid obesity. Obes Res. 2004;12:1828–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Branson R, Potoczna N, Brunotte R, et al. Impact of age, sex and body mass index on outcomes at four years after gastric banding. Obes Surg. 2005;15:834–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ryden A, Karlsson J, Sullivan M, et al. Coping and distress: what happens after intervention? A 2-year follow-up from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study. Psychosom Med. 2003;65:435–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hafner RJ, Rogers J. Husbands’ adjustment to wives’ weight loss after gastric restriction for morbid obesity. Int J Obes. 1990;14:1069–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    MacLean LD, Rhode BM, Sampalis J, et al. Results of the surgical treatment of obesity. Am J Surg. 1993;165:155–60. discussion 160–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Powers PS, Rosemurgy A, Boyd F, et al. Outcome of gastric restriction procedures: weight, psychiatric diagnoses, and satisfaction. Obes Surg. 1997;7:471–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Jeng G, Renquist K, Doherty C, et al. A study on predicting weight loss following surgical treatment for obesity. Obes Surg. 1994;4:29–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Pekkarinen T, Koskela K, Huikuri K, et al. Long-term results of gastroplasty for morbid obesity: binge-eating as a predictor of poor outcome. Obes Surg. 1994;4:248–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Czupryniak L, Pawlowski M, Kumor A, et al. Predicting maximum Roux-en-Y gastric bypass-induced weight reduction—preoperative plasma leptin or body weight? Obes Surg. 2007;17:162–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Pontiroli AE, Pizzocri P, Librenti MC, et al. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding for the treatment of morbid (grade 3) obesity and its metabolic complications: a three-year study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:3555–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Dallal RM, Quebbemann BB, Hunt LH, et al. Analysis of weight loss after bariatric surgery using mixed-effects linear modeling. Obes Surg. 2009;19:732–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Angrisani L, Di Lorenzo N, Favretti F, et al. The Italian Group for LAP-BAND: predictive value of initial body mass index for weight loss after 5 years of follow-up. Surg Endosc. 2004;18:1524–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Sanchez-Cabezudo Diaz-Guerra C, Larrad Jimenez A. Analysis of weight loss with the biliopancreatic diversion of Larrad: absolute failures or relative successes? Obes Surg. 2002;12:249–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Tsushima WT, Bridenstine MP, Balfour JF. MMPI-2 scores in the outcome prediction of gastric bypass surgery. Obes Surg. 2004;14:528–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Carrasco F, Papapietro K, Csendes A, et al. Changes in resting energy expenditure and body composition after weight loss following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Obes Surg. 2007;17:608–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kim TH, Daud A, Ude AO, et al. Early U.S. outcomes of laparoscopic gastric bypass versus laparoscopic adjustable silicone gastric banding for morbid obesity. Surg Endosc. 2006;20:202–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Martikainen T, Pirinen E, Alhava E, et al. Long-term results, late complications and quality of life in a series of adjustable gastric banding. Obes Surg. 2004;14:648–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hess DS, Hess DW. Biliopancreatic diversion with a duodenal switch. Obes Surg. 1998;8:267–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Perugini RA, Mason R, Czerniach DR, et al. Predictors of complication and suboptimal weight loss after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: a series of 188 patients. Arch Surg. 2003;138:541–5. discussion 545–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Still CD, Benotti P, Wood GC, et al. Outcomes of preoperative weight loss in high-risk patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery. Arch Surg. 2007;142:994–8. discussion 999.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Alger-Mayer S, Polimeni JM, Malone M. Preoperative weight loss as a predictor of long-term success following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Obes Surg. 2008;18:772–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Mrad BA, Stoklossa CJ, Birch DW. Does preoperative weight loss predict success following surgery for morbid obesity? Am J Surg. 2008;195:570–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Alami RS, Morton JM, Schuster R, et al. Is there a benefit to preoperative weight loss in gastric bypass patients? A prospective randomized trial. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2007;3:141–5. discussion 145–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ali MR, Baucom-Pro S, Broderick-Villa GA, et al. Weight loss before gastric bypass: feasibility and effect on postoperative weight loss and weight loss maintenance. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2007;3:515–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Harnisch MC, Portenier DD, Pryor AD, et al. Preoperative weight gain does not predict failure of weight loss or co-morbidity resolution of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2008;4:445–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Martin LF, Tan TL, Holmes PA, et al. Can morbidly obese patients safely lose weight preoperatively? Am J Surg. 1995;169:245–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Jantz EJ, Larson CJ, Mathiason MA, et al. Number of weight loss attempts and maximum weight loss before Roux-en-Y laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery are not predictive of postoperative weight loss. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2009;5:208–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Taylor EL, Chiasson PM, Perey BJ. Predicting bariatric surgical outcomes: does preoperative weight gain correlate with lesser postoperative weight loss? Obes Surg. 1995;5:375–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Fujioka K, Yan E, Wang HJ, et al. Evaluating preoperative weight loss, binge eating disorder, and sexual abuse history on Roux-en-Y gastric bypass outcome. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2008;4:137–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Huerta S, Dredar S, Hayden E, et al. Preoperative weight loss decreases the operative time of gastric bypass at a Veterans Administration hospital. Obes Surg. 2008;18:508–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Riess KP, Baker MT, Lambert PJ, et al. Effect of preoperative weight loss on laparoscopic gastric bypass outcomes. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2008;4:704–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ray EC, Nickels MW, Sayeed S, et al. Predicting success after gastric bypass: the role of psychosocial and behavioral factors. Surgery. 2003;134:555–63. discussion 563–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Boan J, Kolotkin RL, Westman EC, et al. Binge eating, quality of life and physical activity improve after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity. Obes Surg. 2004;14:341–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Wolfe BL, Terry ML. Expectations and outcomes with gastric bypass surgery. Obes Surg. 2006;16:1622–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Busetto L, Segato G, De Luca M, et al. Weight loss and postoperative complications in morbidly obese patients with binge eating disorder treated by laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Obes Surg. 2005;15:195–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    White MA, Masheb RM, Rothschild BS, et al. The prognostic significance of regular binge eating in extremely obese gastric bypass patients: 12-month postoperative outcomes. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006;67:1928–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Bocchieri-Ricciardi LE, Chen EY, Munoz D, et al. Pre-surgery binge eating status: effect on eating behavior and weight outcome after gastric bypass. Obes Surg. 2006;16:1198–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Burgmer R, Grigutsch K, Zipfel S, et al. The influence of eating behavior and eating pathology on weight loss after gastric restriction operations. Obes Surg. 2005;15:684–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Malone M, Alger-Mayer S. Binge status and quality of life after gastric bypass surgery: a one-year study. Obes Res. 2004;12:473–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Sabbioni ME, Dickson MH, Eychmuller S, et al. Intermediate results of health related quality of life after vertical banded gastroplasty. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002;26:277–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kalarchian MA, Wilson GT, Brolin RE, et al. Effects of bariatric surgery on binge eating and related psychopathology. Eat Weight Disord. 1999;4:1–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Hsu LK, Betancourt S, Sullivan SP. Eating disturbances before and after vertical banded gastroplasty: a pilot study. Int J Eat Disord. 1996;19:23–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Alger-Mayer S, Rosati C, Polimeni JM, et al. Preoperative binge eating status and gastric bypass surgery: a long-term outcome study. Obes Surg. 2009;19:139–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Wolnerhanssen BK, Peters T, Kern B, et al. Predictors of outcome in treatment of morbid obesity by laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding: results of a prospective study of 380 patients. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2008;4:500–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Sallet PC, Sallet JA, Dixon JB, et al. Eating behavior as a prognostic factor for weight loss after gastric bypass. Obes Surg. 2007;17:445–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Green AE, Dymek-Valentine M, Pytluk S, et al. Psychosocial outcome of gastric bypass surgery for patients with and without binge eating. Obes Surg. 2004;14:975–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Dymek MP, le Grange D, Neven K, et al. Quality of life and psychosocial adjustment in patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: a brief report. Obes Surg. 2001;11:32–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Gormally J, Black S, Daston S, et al. The assessment of binge eating severity among obese persons. Addict Behav. 1982;7:47–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Fairburn CG, Cooper Z. The eating disorder examination (12 edition). In: Fairburn CG, Wilson GT, editors. Binge eating: nature, assessment, and treatment. London: Guilford; 1993. p. 317–60.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Spitzer RL, Yanovski SZ, Marcus MD. The Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R). New York: New York State Psychiatric Institute; 1993.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Allison KC, Wadden TA, Sarwer DB, et al. Night eating syndrome and binge eating disorder among persons seeking bariatric surgery: prevalence and related features. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2006;2:153–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Sugerman HJ, Starkey JV, Birkenhauer R. A randomized prospective trial of gastric bypass versus vertical banded gastroplasty for morbid obesity and their effects on sweets versus non-sweets eaters. Ann Surg. 1987;205:613–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Hudson SM, Dixon JB, O’Brien PE. Sweet eating is not a predictor of outcome after Lap-Band placement. Can we finally bury the myth? Obes Surg. 2002;12:789–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Hodge A, Patterson AJ, Brown WJ, et al. The Anti Cancer Council of Victoria FFQ: relative validity of nutrient intakes compared with weighed food records in young to middle-aged women in a study of iron supplementation. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2000;24:576–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Ryden O, Hedenbro J, Frederiksen S. Weight loss after vertical banded gastroplasty can be predicted: a prospective psychological study. Obes Surg. 1996;6:237–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Stunkard AJ, Messick S. The three-factor eating questionnaire to measure dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger. J Psychosom Res. 1985;29:71–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Kruseman M, Leimgruber A, Zumbach F, et al. Dietary, weight, and psychological changes among patients with obesity, 8 years after gastric bypass. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010;110:527–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    White MA, Kalarchian MA, Masheb RM, et al. Loss of control over eating predicts outcomes in bariatric surgery patients: a prospective, 24-month follow-up study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010;71:175–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Yanovski SZ. Binge eating disorder: current knowledge and future directions. Obes Res. 1993;1:306–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Delin CR, Watts JM, Bassett DL. An exploration of the outcomes of gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity: patient characteristics and indices of success. Obes Surg. 1995;5:159–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Mathus-Vliegen EM. Long-term health and psychosocial outcomes from surgically induced weight loss: results obtained in patients not attending protocolled follow-up visits. Int J Obes (Lond). 2007;31:299–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Gentry K, Halverson JD, Heisler S. Psychologic assessment of morbidly obese patients undergoing gastric bypass: a comparison of preoperative and postoperative adjustment. Surgery. 1984;95:215–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Guerdjikova AI, West-Smith L, McElroy SL, et al. Emotional eating and emotional eating alternatives in subjects undergoing bariatric surgery. Obes Surg. 2007;17:1091–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Fischer S, Chen E, Katterman S, et al. Emotional eating in a morbidly obese bariatric surgery-seeking population. Obes Surg. 2007;17:778–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Wardle J. Eating style: a validation study of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire in normal subjects and women with eating disorders. J Psychosom Res. 1987;31:161–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Rowston W, McCluskey S, Gazet JC, et al. Eating behavior, physical symptoms and psychological factors associated with weight reduction following the Scopinaro operation as modified by Gazet. Obes Surg. 1992;2:355–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Yale CE, Weiler SJ. Weight control after vertical banded gastroplasty for morbid obesity. Am J Surg. 1991;162:13–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Dixon JB, Dixon ME, O’Brien PE. Depression in association with severe obesity: changes with weight loss. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163:2058–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Love RJ, Love AS, Bower S, et al. Impact of antidepressant use on gastric bypass surgery patients’ weight loss and health-related quality-of-life outcomes. Psychosomatics. 2008;49:478–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Beck AT, Steer RA. BDI Beck Depression Inventory manual. San Antonio: Harcourt Brace & Company; 1993.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Butcher JN, Graham JR, Ben-Porath YS, Tellegen A, Dahlstrom WG, Kaemmer B. MMPI-2: manual for administration and scoring. Revth ed. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press; 2001.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Schalling D, Edman G, Asberg M. Impulsive cognitive style and inability to tolerate boredom. In: Zuckerman M, editor. Biological bases of sensation seeking, impulsivity and anxiety. Hillsdale: Erlbaum; 1983. p. 123–45.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Grilo CM, White MA, Masheb RM, et al. Relation of childhood sexual abuse and other forms of maltreatment to 12-month postoperative outcomes in extremely obese gastric bypass patients. Obes Surg. 2006;16:454–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Oppong BA, Nickels MW, Sax HC. The impact of a history of sexual abuse on weight loss in gastric bypass patients. Psychosomatics. 2006;47:108–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Buser A, Dymek-Valentine M, Hilburger J, et al. Outcome following gastric bypass surgery: impact of past sexual abuse. Obes Surg. 2004;14:170–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Larsen JK, Geenen R. Childhood sexual abuse is not associated with a poor outcome after gastric banding for severe obesity. Obes Surg. 2005;15:534–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Rosenberg M. Society and the adolescent self image. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 1965.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Coopersmith S. Self-esteem inventories. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists’ Press; 1981.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    van Gemert WG, Severeijns RM, Greve JW, et al. Psychological functioning of morbidly obese patients after surgical treatment. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1998;22:393–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Dixon JB, Dixon ME, O’Brien PE. Quality of life after lap-band placement: influence of time, weight loss, and comorbidities. Obes Res. 2001;9:713–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Papageorgiou GM, Papakonstantinou A, Mamplekou E, et al. Pre- and postoperative psychological characteristics in morbidly obese patients. Obes Surg. 2002;12:534–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Buddeberg-Fischer B, Klaghofer R, Sigrist S, et al. Impact of psychosocial stress and symptoms on indication for bariatric surgery and outcome in morbidly obese patients. Obes Surg. 2004;14:361–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Larsen F. Psychosocial function before and after gastric banding surgery for morbid obesity. A prospective psychiatric study. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 1990;359:1–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Rowe JL, Downey JE, Faust M, et al. Psychological and demographic predictors of successful weight loss following silastic ring vertical stapled gastroplasty. Psychol Rep. 2000;86:1028–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Vallis TM, Butler GS, Perey B, et al. The role of psychological functioning in morbid obesity and its treatment with gastroplasty. Obes Surg. 2001;11:716–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Leombruni P, Piero A, Dosio D, et al. Psychological predictors of outcome in vertical banded gastroplasty: a 6 months prospective pilot study. Obes Surg. 2007;17:941–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    De Panfilis C, Cero S, Torre M, et al. Utility of the temperament and character inventory (TCI) in outcome prediction of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding: preliminary report. Obes Surg. 2006;16:842–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Cloninger CR, Przybeck TR, Svrakic DH, et al. The temperament and character inventory (TCI): a guide to its development and use. St Louis: Centre for Psychobiology of Personality, Washington University; 1994.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masha Livhits
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Cheryl Mercado
    • 1
  • Irina Yermilov
    • 1
    • 2
  • Janak A. Parikh
    • 1
    • 2
  • Erik Dutson
    • 1
  • Amir Mehran
    • 1
  • Clifford Y. Ko
    • 1
    • 2
  • Melinda Maggard Gibbons
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryDavid Geffen School of Medicine at UCLALos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryVA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare SystemLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Department of SurgeryOlive View—UCLALos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations