Nutritional Course of Patients Submitted to Bariatric Surgery
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Surgical treatment has proved to be effective for weight loss, improving the quality of life of obese individuals. However, metabolic and nutritional deficiencies may occur during the late postoperative period. The objective of the present study was to assess the metabolic and nutritional profile of grade III obese individuals for 12 months after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP).
Forty-eight patients with mean body mass index (BMI) of 51.9 ± 7.8 kg/m2 were submitted to RYGBP. Anthropometric, food intake, and biochemical data were obtained before and for 12 months after surgery.
There was an average weight and body fat reduction of 35% and 46%, respectively. Calorie intake was reduced, ranging from 773 ± 206 to 1035 ± 345 kcal during the study. Protein intake remained below recommended values throughout follow-up, corresponding to 0.5 ± 0.3 g/kg/current body weight/day during the 12th month. Iron and fiber intake was significantly reduced, remaining below recommended levels throughout the study. Serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glycemia were reduced. Albumin deficiency was present in 15.6% of subjects at the beginning of the study vs 8.9% at the end, calcium deficiency was present in 3.4% vs 16.7%, and iron deficiency was present in 12.2% vs 14.6%.
RYGBP was effective for weight loss and for the reduction of obesity rates and risk factors for comorbidities. The diet of these patients, who frequently present inadequate intake of macronutrients and micronutrients, should receive special attention. Patient follow-up and assessment at short intervals are necessary for an early correction of nutritional deficiencies.
KeywordsBariatric surgery Dietary intake Protein intake Food recall Anthropometry and body composition
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