Skip to main content

Instant controlled pressure drop (DIC) assisted dehydrofreezing for improving freezing/thawing efficiency and apple fruit texture


Partial air-drying, instant controlled pressure drop, freezing, and thawing operations were combined to minimize the texture loss of frozen/thawed apple fruits. Fresh apple samples (700% db) and samples previously dehydrated until different water contents [200, 100, and 30% dry basis (db)] and DIC treated at constant conditions (0.2 MPa, 25 s) were completely frozen at − 30 °C and at two different freezing velocities and then thawed at 4 °C. The effects of sample water content and freezing velocity on freezing/thawing durations and apple texture were assessed. Lower sample water content implied higher freezing and thawing rates, and lower freezing and thawing times. Indeed, freezing times are 108 min and 30 min for samples with water contents of 700% and 100% db, respectively. Thawing time was also reduced from 588 to 42 min for conventionally frozen and DIC-dehydrofrozen samples (100% db). During thawing, the amount of water exudate was approximately 12% (g/100 g residual water) for conventionally frozen apples at the lower freezing velocity. Whereas, it is lowered to 1.6% for 100% db DIC-dehydrofrozen samples. Moreover, the impact of freezing velocity on water exudate was significant and very important only for conventionally frozen apples (with high water content) and remains insignificant for DIC-dehydrofrozen samples with different water content levels. Thawed apple firmness was as higher as the water content was lower, without any significant impact of freezing velocity. Dehydrofreezing assisted by instant controlled pressure drop exhibited significant effects on reducing thawing duration and enhancing frozen apple fruit texture.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6


  1. B. Li, D.W. Sun, J. Food Eng. 54(3), 175 (2002)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. E. Demir, K. Dymek, F.G. Galindo, Food Bioprocess Technol. 11, 809 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Z. Zhu, Z. Chen, Q. Zhou et al., Food Bioprocess Technol. 11, 1615 (2018)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. M. Fuchigami, K. Miyazaki, N. Hyakumoto, J. Food Sci. 60(1), 132 (1995)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. A.A. Khan, J.F. Vincent, J. Texture Stud. 27(2), 143 (1996)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. B. Xu, M. Zhang, B. Bhandari et al., Food Bioprocess Technol. 8, 1366 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. S. Chassagne-Berces, F. Fonseca, M. Citeau, M. Marin, LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 43(9), 1441 (2010)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. C. James, G. Purnell, S. James, Food Bioprocess Technol. 7(5), 1219 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Y. Xin, M. Zhang, B. Adhikari, Food Bioprocess Technol. 7, 1736 (2014)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. L. Ben Haj Said, S. Bellagha, K. Allaf, Food Bioprocess Technol. 8(5), 1102 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. L. Cheng, D.W. Sun, Z. Zhu, Z. Zhang, Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 57(4), 769 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. W. Hajji, S. Bellagha, K. Allaf, J. Food Meas. Charact. 14, 353 (2020)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. T. Norton, D. Sun, Food Bioprocess Technol. 1, 2 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. S. Van Buggenhout, I. Messagie, V. Maes et al., Eur. Food Res. Technol. 223, 395 (2006)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. AOAC. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (15th edn), by K. Helrich (ed) (Arlington, Virginia, 1990), p. 22201

  16. T. Allaf, K. Allaf, Food Processing (Springer, New York, 2014)

    Google Scholar 

  17. L. Ben Haj Said, S. Bellagha, K. Allaf, Food Bioprocess Technol. 9(2), 252 (2016)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. A. Maestrelli, R. Lo Scalzo, D. Lupi, G. Bertolo, D. Torreggiani, J. Food Eng. 49(2–3), 255 (2001)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. W. Hajji, H. Gliguem, S. Bellagha, K. Allaf, Dry. Technol. 37, 1028 (2019)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. L.A. Ramallo, R.H. Mascheroni, J. Food Eng. 99(3), 269 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. C. Ilicali, F. Icier, J. Food Eng. 100(4), 696 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. C.A. Miles, Z. Mayer, M.J. Morley, M. Houska, Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 32, 389 (1997)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. D. Góral, F. Kluza, W.E.L. Spiess, K. Kozłowicz, Food Technol. Biotechnol. 54(1), 3 (2016)

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  24. H.R. Bolin, C.C. Huxsoll, J. Food Sci. 58(2), 357 (1993)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. A. Sormani, D. Maffi, G. Bertolo, D. Torreggiani, Food Sci. Technol. Int. 5(6), 479 (1999)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. M.A. Haddad, S. Mounir, V. Sobolik, K. Allaf, Int. J. Food Eng. 4(6), 1064 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. M. Kristiawan, V. Sobolik, L. Klima, K. Allaf, J. Food Eng. 102, 361 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. J. Peng, J. Bi, J. Yi et al., Food Bioprocess Technol. 11, 1674 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. M. Robbers, R.P. Singh, L.M. Cunha, J. Food Sci. 62(5), 1039 (1997)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This research was supported by a scholarship from the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research of Tunisia. The authors acknowledge equally ABCAR-DIC PROCESS SAS, La Rochelle, France for providing an instant controlled pressure drop (DIC) unit.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Leila Ben Haj Said.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ben Haj Said, L., Bellagha, S. & Allaf, K. Instant controlled pressure drop (DIC) assisted dehydrofreezing for improving freezing/thawing efficiency and apple fruit texture. Food Measure 15, 577–584 (2021).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Dehydrofreezing
  • Instant controlled pressure-drop DIC
  • Water content
  • Freezing time
  • Thawing time
  • Texture