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Evaluation of qualitative changes of apple-beetroot juice during long-term storage at different temperatures

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The effect of storage conditions on changes of pH, total soluble solids (°Brix), colour, betalains (betacyanins and betaxanthins), and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural was investigated in apple-beetroot juices stored at 2, 7 and 20 °C for 120 days. The results obtained showed that the quality of apple-beetroot juice is significantly influenced by temperature and storage duration. Increasing storage time and temperature induced an apparent rise (P < 0.05) of lightness (L*), yellowness (b*), hue angle, total colour difference (ΔE) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. Maximal concentration of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural reached 14.97 ± 0.03 mg/L at 20 °C; however, this concentration is under the allowable maximal level in apple juice (20 mg/L). The increase in total colour difference and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural concentration was associated with a decrease of betacyanins and betaxanthins, confirmed by strong inverse correlations (r from − 0.7991 to − 0.9813). Degradation of both betacyanins and betaxanthins followed the first-order kinetic model and showed positive correlation with redness (a*) and chroma. Higher rate constants (k) for betacyanin degradation (k ≈ 0.0064–0.0285 day−1) in comparison with the rate constants for betaxanthin degradation (k ≈ 0.0073–0.0471 day−1) demonstrate that betacyanins degraded slightly faster. The changes in all monitored characteristics were significantly greater at 20 °C (P < 0.05) than at 7 and 2 °C, except pH and °Brix. Therefore, apple-beetroot juices should be stored at lower temperatures to maintain their acceptable quality.

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a* :



Ascorbic acid

ANOVA Tukey’s HSD:

Analysis of variance-Tukey’s honest significant difference

b* :







Total soluble solids

CIE L*a*b* :

Colour space defined by International Commission for Illumination

c t = 0 :

Initial concentration of betacyains/betaxanthins (mg/L)

c t :

Concentration of betacyains/betaxanthins at a particular time (mg/L)


Celsius degree

DF :

Dilution factor


Molar extinction coefficient (L/mol cm)

ΔE :

Total colour difference




High performance liquid chromatography–diode array detector


High performance liquid chromatography–photo diode array detector

k :

First-order rate constant (day1)


Wavelength (nm)

l :

Path lenght of 1-cm cuvette

L* :



Limit of detection (mg/L)


Limit of quantification (mg/L)

MW :

Molecular weight (g/mol)




Polyethylene terephthalate


Correlation coefficient


Relative standard deviation

t :


t 1/2 :

Half-time period (day)






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This contribution is the result of the project ITMS 26220220175, “Improvement of nutritional and sensorial parameters of fruity and vegetable drinks via an inert gases application”, supported by the Research and Development Operational Programme funded by the European Regional Development Fund.

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Correspondence to Blanka Tobolková.

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Tobolková, B., Polovka, M., Daško, Ľ. et al. Evaluation of qualitative changes of apple-beetroot juice during long-term storage at different temperatures. Food Measure 14, 3381–3388 (2020).

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