Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization

, Volume 13, Issue 3, pp 1683–1694 | Cite as

Optimization of yeast β-glucan and additional water levels, and chilled storage time on characteristics of chilled bread using response surface methodology

  • S. Suwannarong
  • R. Wongsagonsup
  • P. Luangpituksa
  • J. Wongkongkatep
  • P. Somboonpanyakul
  • M. SuphantharikaEmail author
Original Paper


This research aimed to investigate the optimum levels of yeast β-glucan and additional water, and chilled storage time for producing chilled bread using response surface methodology. Yeast β-glucan, a natural hydrocolloid extracted from yeast cell wall, possesses not only functional properties but also human health benefits to be used in food products. A Box–Behnken design with three independent variables (yeast β-glucan, additional water, and chilled storage time) and three levels was used to develop models for the different characteristic responses. Superimposition of contour plots of the significant responses (spread ratio, crumb color L* and b* values, crumb hardness and cohesiveness, and moisture content) was performed to obtain the optimum chilled bread formula. Using the qualities of one-day-on-shelf commercial bread as a reference, the optimum chilled bread contained 0.28% yeast β-glucan and 11.69% additional water (wheat flour basis) with 4 days chilled storage. The optimum chilled bread had superior qualities to the basic formula bread at 4 days of chilled storage. The bread staling during chilling can be retarded by incorporating yeast β-glucan and additional water in the bread formula.


Chilled bread Yeast β-glucan Optimization Response surface methodology Bread characteristics 



The authors are grateful to Thailand Research Fund through the Royal Golden Jubilee Ph.D. Program for financial support (Grant no. PHD/0205/2552). This research is also partially supported by the Center of Excellence on Agricultural Biotechnology, Science and Technology Postgraduate Education and Research Development Office, Office of Higher Education Commission, Ministry of Education (AG-BIO/PERDO-CHE).


  1. 1.
    V. Uygur, M. Şen, Int. J. Agric. For. Life Sci. 2, 2 (2018)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    D. Altindal, N. Altindal, Int. J. Agric. For. Life Sci. 2, 2 (2018)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    V. Okatan, Folia Hort. 30, 1 (2018)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R.C. Hoseney, Principles of cereal science and technology, 2nd edn. (American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC), St. Paul, 1994), pp. 229–274Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    I. Mandala, D. Karabela, A. Kostaropoulos, Food Hydrocolloids. 21, 8 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. Mohamed, P. Rayas-Duarte, J. Xu, Food Chem. 107, 1 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M.L. Martin, K.J. Zeleznak, R.C. Hoseney, Cereal Chem. 68, 5 (1991)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    C.M. Rosell, J.A. Rojas, C.B. de Barber, Food Hydrocolloids. 15, 1 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Gómez, F. Ronda, C.A. Blanco, P.A. Caballero, A. Apesteguía, Eur. Food Res.Technol. 216, 1 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. Thammakiti, M. Suphantharika, T. Phaesuwan, C. Verduyn, Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 39, 1 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    V. Petravić-Tominac, V. Zechner-Krpan, K. Berković, P. Galović, Z. Herceg, S. Srečec, I. Špoljarić, Food Technol. Biotechnol. 49, 1 (2011)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    R. Banchathanakij, M. Suphantharika, Food Chem. 114, 1 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
  14. 14.
    Food, D. Administration, Agency Response Letter GRAS Notice No. GRN 000239. (U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 2008), Accessed 24 February 2019
  15. 15.
    S. Worrasinchai, M. Suphantharika, S. Pinjai, P. Jamnong, Food Hydrocolloids. 20, 1 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    R. Santipanichwong, M. Suphantharika, Food Hydrocolloids. 21, 4 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    V. Sae-kang, M. Suphantharika, Carbohydr. Polym. 65, 3 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    S. Satrapai, M. Suphantharika, Carbohydr. Polym. 67, 4 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    L. Wang, R.A. Miller, R.C. Hoseney, Cereal Chem. 75, 2 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    L. Flander, M. Salmenkallio-Marttila, T. Suortti, K. Autio, LWT – Food Sci. Technol. 40, 5 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. Skendi, C.G. Biliaderis, M. Papageorgiou, M.S. Izydorczyk, Food Chem. 119, 3 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. Kinner, S. Nitschko, J. Sommeregger, A. Petrasch, G. Linsberger-Martin, H. Grausgruber et al., J. Cereal Sci. 53, 2 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    P. Kittisuban, P. Ritthiruangdej, M. Suphantharika, LWT – Food Sci. Technol. 57, 2 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    R. Wongsagonsup, P. Kittisuban, A. Yaowalak, M. Suphantharika, Int. Food Res. J. 22, 2 (2015)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    D. Baş, İH. Boyacι, J. Food Eng. 78, 3 (2007)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    R. Wang, W. Zhou, H.H. Yu, W.F. Chow, J. Sci. Food Agric. 86, 6 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    A.A.C.C. International, Approved Methods of Analysis, 10th edn. (AACC International, St. Paul, 2000)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    S.Y. Sim, A.A. Noor Aziah, L.H. Cheng, Food Hydrocolloids. 25, 5 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    S.R. Chevallier, R. Zúñiga, A. Le-Bail, Food Bioprocess Tech. 5, 2 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    T.R. Dapčević Hadnađev, L.P. Dokić, M.S. Hadnađev, M.M. Pojić, S.M. Rakita, A.M. Torbica, Food Feed Res. 40, 2 (2013)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    D. Sabanis, C. Tzia, Food Bioprocess Tech. 2, 1 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    A. León, E. Durán, C.B. de Barber, Z. Lebensm. −Unters. Forsch. 204, 4 (1997)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    C.G. Biliaderis, M.S. Izydorczyk, O. Rattan, Food Chem. 53, 2 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    E. Armero, C. Collar, Z. Lebensm. −Unters. Forsch. 204, 2 (1997)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    M.E. Matos, C.M. Rosell, Eur. Food Res. Technol. 235, 1 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Suwannarong
    • 1
    • 2
  • R. Wongsagonsup
    • 3
  • P. Luangpituksa
    • 1
  • J. Wongkongkatep
    • 1
  • P. Somboonpanyakul
    • 4
  • M. Suphantharika
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of ScienceMahidol UniversityBangkokThailand
  2. 2.Center of Excellence on Agricultural Biotechnology (AG-BIO/PERDO-CHE)BangkokThailand
  3. 3.Food Technology Division, School of Interdisciplinary StudiesMahidol UniversityKanchanaburiThailand
  4. 4.Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Public HealthMahidol UniversityBangkokThailand

Personalised recommendations