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A comprehensive study of polyphenols contents and antioxidant potential of 39 widely used spices and food condiments

Abstract

Spices and condiments are rich sources of potent antioxidants. In the present investigation, total equivalent antioxidant capacities (TEAC) of 39 spices were studied using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) scavenging, and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays. Their total phenolic contents (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) were also determined. TEAC, TPC, and TFC varied significantly (P < 0.05) among these spices. ABTS, DPPH, and CUPRAC assay values of studied spices ranged from 1.42 to 112.94 mg ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE)/g, 1.14 to 91.09 mg Trolox equivalents (TE)/g, and 0.52 to 54.47 mg TE/g, respectively (dry weight basis; DW). Based on Folin–Ciocalteu assay, TPC ranged from 2.93 to 160.55 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g DW. Strong correlations between TPC and TEAC values (R = 0.966, 0.825, and 0.954 for ABTS, DPPH, and CUPRAC, respectively) were found. This indicates that phenolic compounds are potent antioxidants in these spices. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that cloves (flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum) had the most distinct and potent antioxidant capacity, followed by allspice (fruits of Pimenta dioica) and cinnamon (bark of Cinnamomum verum). Results of the present study provide adequate evidence that polyphenols are responsible for their compelling antioxidant capacities of studied spices. Thus, consumption of antioxidant-rich spices such as cloves, allspice, and cinnamon can significantly prevent oxidative stress in the human body.

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Acknowledgements

This paper was supported by KU research professor program of Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

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Correspondence to Ramesh Kumar Saini.

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Assefa, A.D., Keum, YS. & Saini, R.K. A comprehensive study of polyphenols contents and antioxidant potential of 39 widely used spices and food condiments. Food Measure 12, 1548–1555 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11694-018-9770-z

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Keywords

  • Total phenolic contents
  • Total flavonoid contents
  • DPPH
  • ABTS
  • CUPRAC
  • Principal component analysis