Substitution of wheat flour with highly enzyme-resisted cassava starch and its effect on starch digestibility and quality of breads

  • Nguyen Ngoc Thanh Tien
  • Trinh Thi My Duyen
  • Pham Van HungEmail author
Original Paper


The aim of this research was to investigate changes in flour characteristics, bread quality, in vitro and in vivo starch digestibility and glycemic index (GI) values of breads with 10%, 20% and 30% of a mixture of highly enzyme-resisted cassava starch (HRCS) and vital gluten (9:1, w/w) substitution for wheat flour. The composite flours had higher gelatinization temperatures and lower maximum, trough, final, breakdown and setback viscosities than did the wheat flour. The composite flours also had higher water holding capacity and lower swelling index as compared to the wheat flour. The specific volumes of loaves with HRCS substitution reduced substantially, while hardness and gumminess values of loaves escalated remarkably. Resistant starch (RS) contents of substituted breads remarkably enhanced, whereas blood glucose response in mice and GI values of the substituted breads significantly reduced along with raising amounts of HRCS substitution. Moreover, increase in the percentage of HRCS and vital gluten supplementation up to 20% did not significantly impact on the sensorial profile of breadcrumbs including color, appearance, odor and flavor, texture and overall acceptability. As a result, HRCS can be substituted for wheat flour up to 20% in breadmaking to improve human health benefits with satisfied bread quality.


Resistant starch Glycemic index Low-carb bread Cassava starch Blood glucose response 



This research is funded by Vietnam National University in HoChiMinh City (VNU-HCM) under grant number B2017-28-03.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have declared no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nguyen Ngoc Thanh Tien
    • 1
  • Trinh Thi My Duyen
    • 1
  • Pham Van Hung
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Food Technology, School of BiotechnologyInternational University, Vietnam National University in HoChiMinh CityHoChiMinh CityVietnam

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