Effect of the iron biofortification on enzymes activities and antioxidant properties in germinated brown rice

  • Kai Li
  • Guanglin HuEmail author
  • Saixi Yu
  • Qi Tang
  • Jinfang Liu
Original Paper


This study evaluated the effects of germination and iron biofortification process on the enzymes activities and antioxidant properties of brown rice. The results showed that germination rates were increased after iron biofortification process. Accumulation of total iron in brown rice germinated in 2 g/L solution of ferrous sulfate was increased by 12.05–16.50 times compared with non-biofortified germinated brown rice. Furthermore, catalase and peroxidase activities were increased and decreased after this process, respectively. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were significantly (p < 0.05) increased 1.29 and 3.91 times compared with brown rice seed. The antioxidant activities were notably enhanced, especially at high iron concentrations. Hence, the iron biofortification process could be highly beneficial to improve the antioxidant capacities in brown rice. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents had a great correlation with DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities in cultivar Teyou 458 (r = 0.9132–0.9439) but were not related to ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values. Moreover, in the same experiment, rice varieties had a great influence on the experimental results under the same iron biofortification conditions. This study concluded that cultivar Teyou 128 biofortified with 0.25 g/L ferrous sulfate solution during the germination process is appropriate to make functional food for human consumption.



This research was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31460390).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kai Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Guanglin Hu
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Saixi Yu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Qi Tang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jinfang Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.College of Materials and Chemical EngineeringHainan UniversityHaikouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Protection and Development Utilization of Tropical Crop Germplasm Resources (Hainan University), Ministry of EducationHaikouPeople’s Republic of China

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