Determination of chocolate melting properties by capacitance based thermal analysis (CTA)

  • Juzhong Tan
  • William L. Kerr
Original Paper


In this study, a capacitance thermal analyzer (CTA) was designed and tested for measuring the melting properties of chocolates, and compared with those measured by DSC and dynamic rheology. Chocolates with different fat content and particle size distribution (PSD) were placed between stainless steel plates, while capacitance and temperature were monitored between 20 and 60 °C. The PSD did not influence the Tonset (~ 25 °C) and Tpeak (33 °C) measured by DSC. However, samples with finer particles had lower Tend than those with coarser particles (36.59–37.28 °C). Varying fat content did not result in differences in the DSC melting curves. Samples with smaller particle sizes had lower temperatures at peak capacitance than those with larger particles, with peak temperatures ranging from 30.8 to 39.3 °C, while higher peak capacitance values (2.61–2.84 10− 11 F) were measured by CTA. Samples with higher fat content had lower peak temperatures (range 34.7–39.71 °C) but higher peak capacitance values (range 3.29–4.3 10− 11F). Values from the CTA were best correlated with results determined by dynamic thermal rheometry.


Chocolate Melting properties Capacitance Thermal analysis 



We would like to thank Dr. M. Balu and the CocoaTown Company in Atlanta, Georgia for their help with funding and acquisition of supplies.


  1. 1.
    E.O. Afoakwa, A. Paterson, M. Fowler, Factors influencing rheological and textural qualities in chocolate—a review. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 18, 290–298 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    E.O. Afoakwa, A. Paterson, M. Fowler, M.J. Vieira, Influence of tempering and fat crystallization behaviours on microstructural and melting properties in dark chocolate systems. Food Res. Int 42, 200–209 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    A.G. Stapley, H. Tewkesbury, P.J. Fryer, The effects of shear and temperature history on the crystallization of chocolate. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 76, 677–685 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    D. Dhonsi, A.G.F. Stapley, The effect of shear rate, temperature, sugar and emulsifier on the tempering of cocoa butter. J. Food Eng. 77, 936–942 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    H. Schenk, R. Peschar, Understanding the structure of chocolate. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 71, 829–835 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    E.O. Afoakwa, A. Paterson, M. Fowler, Effects of particle size distribution and composition on rheological properties of dark chocolate. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 226, 1259–1268 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    C. Servais, R. Jones, I. Roberts, The influence of particle size distribution on the processing of food. J. Food Eng. 51, 201–208 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    T.A. Do, J.M. Hargreaves, B. Wolf, J. Hort, J.R. Mitchell, Impact of particle size distribution on rheological and textural properties of chocolate models with reduced fat content. J. Food Sci. 72, E541-E552 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Y. Roos, Thermal analysis, state transitions and food quality. J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 7, 197–203 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    V. Glicerina, F. Balestra, M. Dalla Rosa, S. Romani, Rheological, textural and calorimetric modifications of dark chocolate during process. J. Food Eng. 119, 173–179 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Y. Wang, T.D. Wig, J. Tang, L.M. Hallberg, Dielectric properties of foods relevant to RF and microwave pasteurization and sterilization. J. Food Eng. 57, 257–268 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    T.J. Laaksonen, Y.H. Roos, Thermal, dynamic-mechanical, and dielectric analysis of phase and state transitions of frozen wheat doughs. J. Cereal Sci 32, 281–292 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    D. R. Lide ed., Permitivitty (dielectric constant) of gases in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 86th edn. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2005), ISBN 0-8493-0486-5Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    P.A. Kilmartin, D.S. Reid, I. Samson, Dielectric properties of frozen maltodextrin solutions with added NaCl across the glass transition. J. Sci. Food Agric. 84, 1277–1284 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. Tan, W.L. Kerr, Determination of glass transitions in boiled candies by capacitance based thermal analysis (CTA) and genetic algorithm (GA). J. Food Eng. 193, 68–75 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    H.G. Merkus, G.M.H. Meesters, Particulate products: tailoring products for optimal performance (Springer, New York, 2013), pp. 253–273Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    S. Bolenz, A. Manske, Impact of fat content during grinding on particle size distribution and flow properties of milk chocolate. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 236, 863–872 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    E.O. Afoakwa, A. Paterson, M. Fowler, J. Vieira, Characterization of melting properties in dark chocolates from varying particle size distribution and composition using differential scanning calorimetry. Food Res. Int. 41, 751–757 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    S.T. Beckett, The Science of Chocolate, vol. 22 (Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, 2000). pp. 81–101Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    L. Svanberg, L. Ahrné, N. Lorén, E. Windhab, Impact of pre-crystallization process on structure and product properties in dark chocolate. J. Food Eng. 114, 90–98 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    C. Loisel, G. Keller, G. Lecq, B. Launay, M. Ollivon, Tempering of chocolate in a scraped surface heat exchanger. J. Food Sci. 62, 773–780 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    C. Loisel, G. Lecq, G. Keller, M. Ollivon, Dynamic crystallization of dark chocolate as affected by temperature and lipid additives. J. Food Sci. 63, 73–79 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    P. Lonchampt, R.W. Hartel, Fat bloom in chocolate and compound coatings. J. Lip. Sci. Technol. 106, 241–274 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. Torbica, O. Jovanovic, B. Pajin, The advantages of solid fat content determination in cocoa butter and cocoa butter equivalents by the Karlshamns method. J. Food Res. Technol. 222, 385–391 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    G. Mongia, G.,G.R. Ziegler, The role of particle size distribution of suspended solids in defining the flow properties of milk chocolate. Int. J. Food Prop. 3, 137–147 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    M. Yanes, L. Durán, E. Costell, Rheological and optical properties of commercial chocolate milk beverages. J. Food Eng. 51, 229–234 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    A. Sokmen, G. Gunes, Influence of some bulk sweeteners on rheological properties of chocolate. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 39, 1053–1058 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    E.M. Kiley, V.V. Yakovlev, K. Ishizaki, S. Vaucher, Applicability study of classical and contemporary models for effective complex permittivity of metal powders. J. Microw. Power Electromagn. Energy 46, 26–38 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food Science and TechnologyUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA

Personalised recommendations