Effect of different processing parameters on antioxidant activity of tea

  • Bisma Zargar
  • Darakshan Majeed
  • Shaiq Ahmad Ganai
  • Shabir Ahmad Mir
  • B. N. Dar
Original Paper
  • 54 Downloads

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of different infusion conditions viz water temperature, steeping time and addition of milk on total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), tannin content (TC) and antioxidant activity (AOA) of tea. The extraction efficiency of these compounds significantly depends on infusion conditions. The highest TPC, TFC, TC and AOA were observed in tea infused at 100 °C for 15 min. The results indicated that higher water temperature and shorter steeping time are the best combination for the extraction of TPC and AOA of tea samples. The milk addition was observed to decrease the antioxidant activity of tea samples.

Keywords

Unfermented tea Semifermented tea Fermented tea Total phenolic content 

References

  1. 1.
    P.J. Rijken, E. Cadenas, L. Packer, Antioxidant and Other Properties of Green and Black Tea. Handbook of Antioxidants, vol 19 (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2000), pp. 371–399Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    D.A. Balentine, S.A. Wiseman, L.C. Bouwens, The chemistry of tea flavonoids. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 37, 693–704 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    D.C. Chu, L.R. Juneja, General Chemical Composition of Green Tea and Its Infusion: Chemistry and Applications of Green Tea. (CRC Press, New York, 1997), pp. 13–22Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Bonoli, V. Verardo, E. Marconi, M.F. Caboni, Antioxidants phenols in barley flour, spectrophotometric study among extraction methods of free and bound phenolic compounds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52, 5195–5200 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    T.R. Dias, G. Tomás, N.F. Teixeira, M.G. Alves, P.F. Oliveira, B.M. Silva, White tea (Camellia Sinensis (L.)): antioxidant properties and beneficial health effects. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. Diet. 2(2), 19–26 (2013)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. Velayutham, A. Babu, D. Liu, Green tea catechins and cardiovascular health: an update. Curr. Med. Chem. 15, 1840–1850 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    T. Sato, G. Myata, The neutraceutical benefit of tea. Green Tea Nutr 16, 315–317 (2000)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    H.N. Graham, Green tea composition, consumption, and polyphenol chemistry. Prev. Med. 21, 334–350 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. Rahman, N. Anyangwe, C.L. Carlacci, S. Danam, E. Enongene, G. Erives, D. Fabricant, R. Gudi, C.J. Hilmas, F. Hines, P. Howard, D. Levy, Y. Lin, R.J. Moore, E. Pfeiler, T.S. Thurmond, S. Turujman, N.J. Walker, The safety and regulation of natural products used as foods and food ingredients. Toxicol. Sci. 123, 333–348 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J.A. Stewart, W. Mullen, A. Crozier, High performance liquid chromatography of the antioxidant of phenolic in green and black tea. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 49, 52–60 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    A.M.J. Haenen, G.R. Wilms, L.C. Beetstra, S.A. Heijnen, C.G. Voss, A. Bast, Interactions between flavonoids and proteins: effect on the total antioxidant capacity. Jour. Agric. Food Chem. 50, 1184–1187 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. Tewari, V. Gupta, S. Bhattacharya, Comparative study of antioxidant potential of tea with and without Additives. Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 44(2), 215–219 (2000)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    R.P. Singh, K.N.C. Murthy, G.K. Jayaprakasha, Studies on the antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel and seed extracts using in vitro models. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50, 81–86 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A.S. Muzafar, T. Manju, J.S. Qiaser, A. Poonam, A.K. Mir, In vitro antioxidant activity, total phenolic acid, total flavonoid contents of Traxacum officinale leaves. Int. J. Innov. Pharm. Sci. Res. 3(6), 697–707 (2015)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    N. Tamilselvi, P. Krishnamoorthy, R. Dhamotharan, P. Arumugam, E. Sagadevan, Analysis of total phenols, total tannins and screening of phytocomponents in Indigofera aspalathoides (Shivanar Vembu) Vahl EX DC. J. Chem. Pharm. Res. 4(6), 3259–3262 (2012)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. Lee, J.H. Park, J.S. Choi, The antioxidant activity of Eklonia stolonifera. Arch. Pharm. Res. 19(3), 223–227 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    I.F.F. Benzie, J.J. Strain, The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant” power: the FRAP assay. Anal. Biochem. 239, 70–76 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    M.B. Arnao, A. Cano, M. Acosta, The hydrophilic and lipophilic contribution to total antioxidant activity. Food Chem. 73, 239–244 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. Resat, G. Kubilay, O. Mustafa, E.K. Saliha, Novel total antioxidant capacity index for dietary polyphenols and vitamins C and E, using their cupric ion reducing capability in the presence of neocuprine: CUPRAC method. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52, 7970–7981 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    K.R. Koech, J.K. Wanyoko, F.N. Wachira, R.M. Ngure, S.M. Karori, C.C. Bii, Antioxidant, antimicrobial and synergistic activities of tea polyphenols. African Crop Sci. J. 22, 837–846 (2014)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    D. Amie, D.D. Amie, D. Beslo, N. Trinajstie, Structure-radical scavenging activity relationships of flavonoids. Croat Sica Chem. Acta 76, 55–61 (2003)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    S.U. Rehman, K. Almas, N. Shahzadi, N. Bhatti, A. Saleem, Effect of time and temperature on infusion of tannins from commercial brands of tea. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 04(2), 285–287 (2002)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    C.D. Fernando, P. Soysa, Extraction kinetics of phytochemicals and antioxidant activity during black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) brewing. Nutr. J. 14, 74–80 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    C.D. Monique, S.M. van der Burg-Koorevar, S.M. Guus, J.E. Duchateau, Effect of milk and brewing method on black tea catechin bioaccessibility. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59, 7752–7758 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    I. Hasni, P. Bourassa, S. Hamdani, G. Samson, R. Carpentier, H.A. Tajmir-Riahi, Interaction of milk α- and β-caseins with tea polyphenols. Food Chem. 126, 630–639 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    S. Khokhar, S.G.M. Magnusdottir, Total phenol, catechin, and caffeine contents of teas commonly consumed in the United Kingdom. J. Agric. Food Chem. 5, 565–570 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Z. Yuksel, E. Avci, Y.K. Erdem, Characterization of binding interactions between green tea flavanoids and milk proteins. Food Chem. 121, 450–456 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    N.C. Panda, S.K. Panda, A.G. Rao, B.K. Sahu, Damage done to intestine, liver and kidney by tannic acid of tea and coffee. Ind. J. Nutr. Diet. 18, 97–103 (1981)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    T.M. El-Messery, H.M.F. El-Din, N.S. Mehanna, A.A.E. Ali, Z.M.R. Hassan, R. Amarowicz, Determination of interaction between some planet tannins and milk proteins by HPLC. Int. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 4, 1 (2015)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    B. Madhan, P. Thanikaivelan, V. Subramanian, R.J. Raghava, U.N. Balachandran, T. Ramasami, Molecular mechanics and dynamics studies on the interaction of gallic acid with collagen-like peptides. Chem. Phys. Lett. 346, 334–340 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    M. Pinelo, L. Manzocco, M.J. Nunez, M.C. Nicoli, Interaction among phenols in food fortification: negative synergism on antioxidant capacity. J. Agric Food Chem. 52, 1177–1180 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    W.M. Siah, M.A. Azman, K. Jeeven, H.M.D. Noor, M.S. Tahir, Effect of infusion conditions on total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in Centella asiatica tea. J. Trop. Agric. Food Sci. 39(2), 149–156 (2011)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    V.H. Sharma, V.L. Kumar, J.M. Rao, Influence of milk and sugar on antioxidant potential of black tea. Food Res. Int. 41, 124–129 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    M.J. Arts, G.R. Haenen, L.C. Wilms, S.A. Beetstra, C.G. Heijnen, H.P. Voss, Interactions between flavonoids and proteins: effect on the total antioxidant capacity. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50, 1184–1187 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    J.A.M. Kyle, P.C. Morrice, G. Mcneill, G.G. Duthie, Effects of infusion time and addition of milk on content and absorption of polyphenols from black tea. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55, 4889–4894 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    C. Astill, M.R. Birch, C. Dacombe, P.G. Humphrey, P.T. Martin, Factors affecting the caffeine and polyphenol contents of black and green tea infusions. J. Agric Food Chem. 49, 5340–5347 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    L. Ryan, S. Petit, Addition of whole, semi-skimmed, and skimmed bovine milk reduces the total antioxidant capacity of black tea. Nutr. Res. J. 30, 14–20 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    D. Svetli, S. Guy, A. Heidar, R. Tajmir, Dual effect of milk on the antioxidant capacity of green, Darjeeling and English breakfast teas. Food Chem. 122, 539–545 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    A. Resat, G.U. Kubilay, O. Mustafa, E.K. Saliha, A.G. Erolerc, The cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of some herbal teas. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 57, 292–304 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bisma Zargar
    • 1
  • Darakshan Majeed
    • 1
  • Shaiq Ahmad Ganai
    • 1
  • Shabir Ahmad Mir
    • 1
  • B. N. Dar
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Food TechnologyIslamic University of Science and TechnologyAwantiporaIndia
  2. 2.Department of Food ScienceCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

Personalised recommendations