The effects of various ratios of sunflower oil and surfactant on household type cake quality

  • Halef Dizlek
  • M. Sertac Ozer
Original Paper


The aim of this study was to determine the effects of sunflower oil (0, 5, 10, 15%) and surfactant (acetic and lactic acid esters of mono and diglycerides; 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1%) on the quality of the wheat flour based household type cake. The variable ingredients were used as alone or in combinations in cake manufacture; therefore 20 different batter formulations were formed. Quality characteristics of cake samples (volume, symmetry, uniformity, shrinkage, weight loss, crumb–grain structure, crumb firmness) were investigated. Both components had a significant (P < 0.05) impact on cake quality. In trial conditions, it was determined that the effect of surfactant on cake quality was greater than the oil. In cake batter, using up to a certain level (0.5%) surfactant was improved the cake volume and porosity. When the surfactant was used at 0.75 and 1% levels, these cake properties were deteriorated. The softness of the cakes have been measured as maximum when surfactant was used alone in increasing order from 0 to 1%. Sunflower oil improved the cake quality up to a limited extent. This improvement generally occurred at 5% level. Usage of oil with higher levels declined cake properties significantly. In combination formula, it was determined that using surfactant made using more oil in the batter formula possible. Careful attention should be paid to the appropriate level of use of oil and surfactant in cake production. Otherwise, significant declines occurred in cake quality. It was concluded that high-quality household-type cakes can be made if both ingredients were combined the use of 5–10% oil and 0.75–1% surfactant.


Batter Household type cake Sunflower oil Surfactant Cake quality 



We would like to thank Vildan Altuncu, Zeynep Yoruk, Aysegul F. Gok, Huma Bebek Fersahoglu, and Ulfet Kayalar due to assist the cake production trials.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringOsmaniye Korkut Ata UniversityOsmaniyeTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of AgricultureCukurova UniversityAdanaTurkey

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