Simultaneous determination of deltamethrin, permethrin and malathion in stored wheat samples using continuous sample drop flow microextraction followed by HPLC–UV

Original Paper
  • 57 Downloads

Abstract

Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is an important staple food worldwide used for the manufacture of flour-derived foodstuffs such as bread and noodles. The purpose of this study was to investigate common pesticides in stored wheat at Kermanshah province’s silos in Iran. Continuous sample drop flow microextraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography–ultraviolet (HPLC–UV) detection was applied for this purpose. In this technique, a few microliter of organic solvent is transferred to the bottom of a conical test tube and the aqueous solution transforms in form fine droplets while passing through the organic solvent. After extraction, 20 μL of organic solvent containing target analytes was injected into the HPLC–UV. The extraction conditions (including type and volume of extraction solvent, sample solution flow rate, sample solution volume, pH and salt addition) were varied to achieve optimized performance. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration graphs are linear in the range of 0.5–1000 µg kg−1 and limit of detections (LODs) are in the range of 0.2–0.5 µg kg−1. Repeatability (intra-day) and reproducibility (inter-day) of method based on seven replicate measurements of 100 µg kg−1 of target pesticides were in the range of 3.2–5.1% and 4.7–7.2%, respectively. Three out of 36 wheat grain samples contained permethrin exceeding safety levels, but the levels of the other two pesticides in all samples were below the maximum residue levels based on Europe standard level.

Keywords

Continuous sample drop flow microextraction Deltamethrin Permethrin Malathion Wheat sample 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the Research Council of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (Grant Number: 94234) for the financial. This work was performed in partial fulfillment of the requirement for M.S of Environmental Health Engineering of Mohammad Karami, in School of Public Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

References

  1. 1.
    B. Lozowicka, P. Kaczynski, A.E. Paritova, G.B. Kuzembekova, A.B. Abzhalieva, N.B. Sarsembayeva, K. Alihan, Food Chem. Toxicol. 64, 238–248 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    G.D. Savi, K.C. Piacentini, T. Bortolotto, V.M. Scussel, Food Chem. 203, 246–251 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. Hallier, F. Celette, J. Coutarel, C. David, Food Addit. Contam. A 30, 2159–2164 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    K. Samatha, N.Y. Sreedhar, Talanta 49, 53–58 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    T. Thriveni, N.Y. Sreedhar, Bull. Electrochem. 20, 517–523 (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. Du, H. Yan, D. She, B. Liu, G. Yang, Talanta 82, 698–703 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M.R. Bonner, J. Coble, A. Blair, L.E.B. Freeman, J.A. Hoppin, D.P. Sandler, M.C.R. Alavanja, Am. J. Epidemiol. 166, 1023–1034 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J.M. Abad, F. Pariente, L. Hernandez, H.D. Abruna, E. Lorenzo, Anal. Chem. 70, 2848–2855 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Pirsaheb, N. Fattahi, M. Shamsipur, Food Control 34, 378–385 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    B. Shammugasamy, Y. Ramakrishnan, H.M. Ghazali, K. Muhammad, J. Chromatogr. A 1300, 31–37 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Shamsipur, N. Yazdanfar, M. Ghambarian, Food Chem. 204, 289–297 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    A. Bidari, M.R. Ganjali, P. Norouzi, M.R. Milani Hosseini, Y. Assadi, Food Chem. 126, 1840–1844 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. Fenik, M. Tankiewicz, M. Biziuk, Trends Anal. Chem. 30, 814–826 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    N.M. Brito, S. Navickiene, L. Polese, E.F.G. Jardim, R.B. Abakerli, M.L. Ribeiro, J. Chromatogr. A 957, 201–209 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. Barriada-Pereira, M.J. Gonzalez-Castro, S. Muniategui-Lorenzo, P. Lopez-Mahia, D. Prada-Rodriguez, E. Fernandez-Fernandez, J. Chromatogr. A 1061, 133–139 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Chai, G. Tan, A. Lal, Anal. Sci. 24, 273–276 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    P.C. Abhilash, S. Jamil, N. Singh, J. Chromatogr. A 1176, 43–47 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    K.N.T. Norman, S.H.W. Panton, J. Chromatogr. A 907, 247–255 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    D.L. Wang, J. You, M.J. Lydy, Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 59, 382–392 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. You, D.P. Weston, M.J. Lydy, Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 47, 141–147 (2004)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. Barriada-Pereira, E. Concha-Grana, M.J. Gonzalez-Castro, S.M. Lorenzo, P. Lopez-Mahia, D. Prada-Rodriguez, E. Fernandez-Fernandez, J. Chromatogr. A 1008, 115–122 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    K. Sharafi, N. Fattahi, M. Pirsaheb, H. Yarmohamadi, M. Fazlzadeh Davil, Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 37, 489–495 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    M. Rezaee, F. Khalilian, H.A. Mashayekhi, N. Fattahi, Anal. Methods 6, 3456–3461 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    S. Taheri, F. Jalali, N. Fattahi, G. Bahrami, J. Sep. Sci. 38, 309–315 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    M.I. Leong, S.D. Huang, J. Chromatogr. A 1211, 8–12 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    M. Pirsaheb, N. Fattahi, S. Pourhaghighat, M. Shamsipur, K. Sharafi, LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 60, 825–831 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    M. Majlesi, M. Massoudinejad, F. Hosainzadeh, N. Fattahi, Anal. Methods 8, 3795–3801 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    T. Ahmadi-Jouibari, N. Fattahi, Food Addit. Contam. A 32, 1140–1147 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    T. Ahmadi-Jouibari, N. Fattahi, M. Shamsipur, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 94, 145–151 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    L. Zou, Y. Tian, X. Zhang, J. Fang, N. Hu, P. Wang, Sens. Actuators B 238, 1173–1180 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    L. Liu, D. Zhang, Q. Zhang, X. Chen, G. Xu, Y. Lu, Q. Liu, Biosens. Bioelectron. 93, 94–101 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    G. Hui, J. Zhang, J. Li, L. Zheng, Food Chem. 197, 1168–1176 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Z. Xiaohong, Z. Zhidong, L. Xiongwei, L. Jian, H. Guohua, J. Food Meas. Charact. 11, 548–555 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    S. Moinfar, G. Khayatian, M.R. Milani Hosseini, Talanta 129, 309–314 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    L. Zhang, R. Yu, Z. Wang, N. Li, H. Zhang, A. Yu, J. Chromatogr. B 953–954, 132–137 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Y. Wang, Y. Sun, B. Xu, X. Li, X. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Song, Anal. Chim. Acta 888, 67–74 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    H. Wang, G. Li, Y. Zhang, H. Chen, Q. Zhao, W. Song, Y. Xu, H. Jin, L. Ding, J. Chromatogr. A 1233, 36–43 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    R. Carabias-Martínez, E. Rodríguez-Gonzalo, E. Miranda-Cruz, J. Domínguez-Álvarez, J. Hernández-Méndez, Electrophoresis 28, 3606–3616 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    F. Ji, L. Zhao, W. Yan, Q. Feng, J.M. Lin, J. Sep. Sci. 31, 961–968 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Council, Directive 86/362/EEC of 24 July 1986 on the fixing of maximum levels for pesticide residues in and on cerealsGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health (RCEDH)Kermanshah University of Medical SciencesKermanshahIran
  2. 2.Students Research CommitteeKermanshah University of Medical SciencesKermanshahIran
  3. 3.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of HealthHormozgan University of Medical SciencesBandar AbbasIran

Personalised recommendations