Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 1542–1549 | Cite as

Antioxidant activity, phenolic, carotenoid and color changes in packaged fresh carrots stored under refrigeration temperature

  • Raees-ul HaqEmail author
  • Kamlesh Prasad
Original Paper


Carrots of uniform size were wrapped tightly within a plastic cling film and stored under refrigeration conditions for a period of 24 days. The roots were analyzed for changes in phenolics, carotenoids, antioxidant activity, texture and optical properties at every 6th day. Total carotenoid levels decreased from 12.68 to 8.17 mg/100 gm during the storage and a similar change in phenolics was observed with values decreasing from 41.63 to 32.31 mg GAE/100 gm. Collective losses of both carotenoids and phenolics negatively affected antioxidant activity in carrots with figures decreasing from 16.50 to 11.07%. The refrigeration storage of carrots also had an influence on its optical and textural characteristics at significant levels (p < 0.5). Texture change in carrots was more profound in core sections of root during the storage. A strong positive correlation was observed for antioxidants with carotenoids, phenolics, L* and a* values.


Carrot Carotenoids Phenolics Antioxidant activity Color 



This study was funded by Maulana Azad National Fellowship (201516-MANF-2015-16-JAM-49039).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    J. Stolarczyk, J. Janick, Chron. Hortic. 51, 12–18 (2011)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Algarra, A. Fernandes, N. Mateus, V. de’Freitas, J.C. da’Silva, J. Casado, J. Food Compos. Anal. 33, 71–76 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. Kramer, Evaluation of quality of fruits and vegetables, in Food Quality, ed. By G.W. Irving, S.R. Hoover (American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington DC, 1965)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    H. vanden-Berg, R. Faulks, H.F. Granado, J. Hirschberg, B. Olmedilla, G. Sandmann, S. Southon, W. Stahl, J. Sci. Food Agric. 80, 880–912 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    R.L. Surles, N. Weng, P.W. Simon, S.A. Tanumihardjo, J. Agr. Food Chem. 52, 3417–3421 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    L. Arab, S. Steck, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 71, 1691–1697 (2000)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    C. Kaur, H.C. Kapoor, Int. J. Food Sci. Tech. 36, 703–725 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    H.R. Matos, U.L. Capelozzi, O.F. Gomes, P.D. Mascio, M.H. Medeiros, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 396, 171–177 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    B. Halliwell, Annu. Rev. Nutr. 16, 33–50 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    D.M. Barrett, J.C. Beaulieu, R. Shewfelt, Crit. Rev. Food Sci. 50, 369–389 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    F.R. Harker, F.A. Gunson, S.R. Jaeger, Postharvest Biol. Technol. 28, 333–347 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    AOAC International, Official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 15th edn. (AOAC International, Virginia, 1990)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    E.J. Sacks, D.M. Francis, J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 126, 221–226 (2001)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    R.C. Martins, C.L. Silva, Int. J. Refrig. 25, 966–974 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    H.R. Bolin, C.C. Huxsoll, J. Food Sci. 46, 416–418 (1991)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    A.S. Szczesniak, M.A. Brandt, H.H. Fiedman, J. Food Sci. 28, 397–400 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Y.W. Park, J. Food Sci. 52, 1022–1025 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    D.B. Rodriguez-Amaya, A guide to carotenoid analysis in foods. (ILSI Press, Washington, 2001).)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    V.L. Singleton, J.A. Rossi, Am. J. Enol. Vitic 16, 144–158 (1965)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    R. Haq, P. Kumar, K. Prasad, Food Meas. 10, 701–708 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    W. Brand-Williams, M.E. Cuvelier, C. Berset, LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 28, 25–30 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    HunterLab, Applications note Hunter lab color scale Insight on color (2008), Available from, Accessed 30 Aug 2016
  23. 23.
    A. Adekunte, B. Tiwari, P. Cullen, A. Scannell, C. O’Donnell, Food Chem. 122, 500–507 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. Amanatidou, R.A. Slump, L.G.M. Gorris, E.J. Smid, J. Food Sci. 65, 61–66 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Y. Tatsumi, A.E. Watada, W.P. Wergin, J. Food Sci. 56, 1357–1359 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    J. Gross, Pigments in Fruits, (Academic Press, London, 1987)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    L. Filoin, D. Kilcast, Food Qual. Prefer. 13, 23–29 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    M.I. Gil, E. Aguayo, A.A. Kader, J. Agric. Food Chem. 54, 4284–4296 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    E.M. Ahmed, S. Mirza, A.G. Arreola, J. Food Qual. 14, 321–330 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    E. Llorca, A. Puig, I. Hernando, A. Salvador, S.M. Fiszman, M.A. Lluch, J. Sci. Food Agric. 81, 1553–1560 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    J.V. Buren, M.A. Joslyn, Crit. Rev. Food Sci. 1, 5–24 (2009)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    T.M. Lin, T.D. Durance, C.H. Scaman, Food Res. Int. 31, 111–117 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    C. Alasalvar, J.M. Grigor, D. Zhang, P.C. Quantick, F. Shahidi, J. Agric. Food Chem. 49, 1410–1416 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    R. Haq, P. Kumar, K. Prasad, J. Food Process. Preserv. (2016). doi: 10.1111/jfpp.12785 Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    A. Bunea, M. Andjelkovic, C. Socaciu, O. Bobis, M. Neacsu, R. Verhe, J.V. Camp, Food Chem. 108, 649–656 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    L.R. Howard, L.E. Griffin, Y. Lee, J. Food Sci. 59, 356–358 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    S.K. Sarkar, C.T. Phan, J. Food Prot. 42, 526–534 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    I. Babic, M.J. Amiot, C. Ngugen, S. Aubert, J. Food Sci. 58, 351–356 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    J. Piljac-Zegarc, D. Samec, Food Res. Int. 44, 345–350 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    K. Prasad, R. Haq, V. Bansal, M.W. Siddiqui, in Plant Secondary Metabolites Volume 2: Stimulation, Extraction, and Utilization, ed. By M.W. Siddiqui, V. Bansal, K. Prasad (Apple Academic Press Inc, Oakville, 2016)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    M.A. Murcia, A.M. Jimenez, M. Martinez-Tome, Food Res. Int. 42, 1046–1052 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    J.D. Evans, Straightforward statistics for the behavioral sciences (CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing, Pacific Grove, 1996)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    N.C. Bozalan, F. Karadeniz, Int. J. Food Prop. 14, 1060–1068 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food Engineering and TechnologySant Longowal Institute of Engineering & TechnologySangrurIndia

Personalised recommendations