Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 1531–1541 | Cite as

Effect of different solvents on volatile and non-volatile constituents of red bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and their in vitro antioxidant activity

  • Shruthi Prabakaran
  • Lavanya Ramu
  • Sudha Veerappan
  • Brindha Pemiah
  • Niraimathi KannappanEmail author
Original Paper


The fresh fruit of Capsicum annuum L. (red bell pepper) was successively extracted using n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and their percentage yield was calculated. The effectiveness of each extract on chemical composition and antioxidant activity was studied. The qualitative phytochemical evaluation of each extract of bell pepper was done by HPTLC and Gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis. The total content of phenols, flavonoids and carotenoids were estimated by standard chemical methods. Further, the antioxidant potential of each extract was measured via DPPH and reducing power assays. Gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy analysis showed that the majority of compounds were related to phenols and flavonoids. Further analysis of the extract by HPTLC verified the presence of different types of phenolic compounds in addition to flavonoids and carotenoids. Among the different solvent extracts analyzed, total phenolic content was higher in ethanol extract (7.136 ± 0.03%, w/w) whereas ethyl acetate extract showed the presence of higher flavonoid content (4.0521 ± 0.03%, w/w). The ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of the fruit of C. annuum exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity with inhibition percentage of 53.66 and 49.55% at a concentration of 254 µg/ml. Based on the biochemical analysis and phytochemical screening, we conclude that C. annuum possess potent antioxidant potential and this ability of the extract is attributed to the presence of rich polyphenolic compounds.


Antioxidant activity Bell pepper GC-MS analysis HPTLC 



The authors kindly acknowledge Honorable Vice chancellor of SASTRA University, Thanjavur for his financial support and facilities to carry out this research work.


  1. 1.
    M. Maria do Socorro Rufino, E. Ricardo Alves, S.E. de Brito, J. Perez-Jimenez, F. Saura-Calixto, J. Mancini-Filho, Bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacities of 18 non-traditional tropical fruits from Brazil. Food Chem. 121, 996–1002 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    K.L. Wolfe, R.H. Liu, Apple peels as value-added food ingredient. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51, 1676–1683 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    E.A. Hayouni, M. Abedrabba, M. Bouix, M. Hamdi, The Effects of solvents and extraction method on the phenolic contents and biological activities in vitro of Tunisian Quercuscoccifera L. and Juniperusphoenicea L.. fruit extracts. Food Chem. 105, 1126–1134 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    L. Abdullah Hussain, A.S. Shahzad Chatha, S. Noor, Z.A. Khan, U. Muhammad Arshad, A. HassaanRathore, Z.A. Munavvar Sattar, Effect of extraction techniques and solvent systems on the extraction of antioxidant components from Peanut (Arachishypogaea L.) Hulls. Food Anal. Methods 4, 890–896 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. Mital Kaneria, B. Manisha Bapodara, V. Sumitra Chanda, Effect of extraction techniques and solvents on antioxidant activity of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) leaf and stem. Food Anal. Methods 5, 396 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    D. Evaggelia Tzika, V. Papadimitriou, G. Theodore Sotiroudis, A. Xenakis, Antioxidant properties of fruits and vegetables shots and juices: an electron paramagnetic study. Food Biophys. 1,48–53 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Ghazemnezhad, M. Sherafati, G.A. Payvast, Variation in phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity of five coloured bell pepper (Capsicum annum) fruits at two different harvest times. J. Funct. Foods 1, 44–49 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. Andrews, Peppers: Botany, production and uses The Domesticated Capsicums. (University of Texas Press, Austin, 1984), pp. 83Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    P.W Bosland, In Compendium of Pepper Diseases, ed. by K Pernezny, PD Roberts, JF Murphy, NP Goldberg (APS Press, St. Paul, 2003), pp. 1–4Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    M.R. Gomez-Garcia, O.-A. Neftali, Biochemistry and molecular biology of carotenoid biosynthesis in chilli peppers (Capsicum spp.). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, 19025–19053 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    N.P. Holzapfel, B.M. Holzapfel, S. Champ, J. Feldthusen, J. Clements, D. Werner Hutmacher, The potential role of lycopene for the prevention and therapy of prostate cancer: from molecular mechanisms to Clinical evidence. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, 14620–14646 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    E.S. Guna, S.P. Cowell, Drug insight: lycopene in the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Nat. Clin. Proct. Urol. 2, 38–43 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    D. Howard Sesso, E. Julie Buring, M. Shumin Zhang, P. Edward Norkus, J. Michael Gaziano, Dietary and plasma lycopene and the risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 14, 1074 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A.K. Gupta, Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal plants, (Indian Council of Medical Research, Indraprastha press, New Delhi, 2003) pp, 32Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    A.K. Gupta, Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal plants, (Indian Council of Medical Research, Indraprastha press, New Delhi, 2003). pp, 209Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    C. Chang, M. Yang, H. Wen, J. Chern, Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. J. Food Drug Anal. 10, 178–182 (2002)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    S.K. Sharma, M. Le Maguer, Lycopene in tomatoes and tomato pulp fractions. Italian J. Food Sci. 2, 107–113 (1996)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    W. Brand-Williams, M.E. Cuvelier, C. Berset, Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Food Sci. Technol. 28, 25–30(1995)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Oyaizu, Studies on product of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine. Jpn. J. Nutr. 44, 307–315 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    D.-M. Yang, Q.-S. Wang, K. Le-Qin, J.-M. Jiang, T.-J. Ying, Antioxidant activities of various types of lotus (Nelumbo nicifera Gaertn) rhizome. Asian Pac. J. Clin. Nutr. 04, 158–163 (2007)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Y. Baravalia, M. Kaneria, Y. Vaghasiya, J. Parekh, S. Chanda, Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Diospyros ebenum Roxb leaf extracts. Turk. J. Biol. 33, 159–164 (2009)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    S. Bushra, A. Farooq, P. Roman, Antioxidant activity of phenolic components present in barks of Azadirachta indica, Terminalia arjuna, Acacia nilotica and Eugenia jambolana Lam trees. Food Chem. 104, 1106–1114 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    S. Milan Stankovic, Total phenolic content, flavonoid concentration and antioxidant activity of Marrubium peregrinum L. extracts. Kragujev. J. Sci. 33, 63–72 (2011)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. Bonoli, A. Bendini, L. Cerretanietal, Qualitative and semi quantitative analysis of phenolic compounds in extra virgin olive oils as a function of the ripening degree of olive fruits by different analytical techniques. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52, 7026–7032 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    T. Sun, Z. Xu, C.T. Wu, M. Janes, W. Prinyawiwatkul, H.K. No, Antioxidant activities of different colored sweet bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.). J. Food Sci. 72, 98–102 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    A. Pieternel Luning, Ria van der Vuurst de Vries, D. Yuksel, T. Ebbenhorst-Seller, J. Harry Wichers, P. Jacques Roozen, Combined instrumental and sensory evaluation of flavor of fresh bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) harvested at three maturation stages. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42, 977–983 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    U. Kankeaw, E. Masong, The Antioxidant activity from Hydroquinone derivatives by the synthesis of CinnamomumverumJ.Presl bark’s extracted. Int. J. Chem. Eng. Appl. 6, 91–94 (2015)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    C.M. Hasler, Functional foods; their role in disease prevention and health. Food Technol. 52, 63–69 (1998)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    B. Simon Iloki Assanga, M. Lidianys Lewis Lujan, L. Claudia Lara-Espinoza, A. Armida Gil-Salido, DanielaFernandez- Angulo, L. Jose Rubio-Pino, D. David Haines, Solvent effects on phytochemical constituent profiles and antioxidant activities, using four different extraction formulations for analysis of Bucida buceras L. and Phoradendron californicum. BMC Res. Notes 8, 1–14 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    S. Sinimol, A. Sarika, A.J. Nair, Diversity and antagonistic potential of marine microbes collected from south-west coast of india. Biotech 6, 1–9 (2016)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    T. Zhang, X. Wei, Z. Miao, H. Hassan, Y. song, M. Fan, Screening for antioxidant and antibacterial activities of phenolics from Golden delicious apple pomace. Chem. Cent. J. 47, 1–9 (2016)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    W. Brand-Williams, M.E. Cuvelier, C. Berset, Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Food Sci. Technol. 28, 25–30 (1995)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    W.J. Yen, L.W. Chang, P.D. Duh, Antioxidant activity of peanut seed testa and its antioxidative component, ethyl protocatechuate. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 38, 193–200 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    D. Kolli, K.R. Amperayani, U. Parimi, Total Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Morindatinctoria leaves. Indian J. Pharm. Sci. 77, 226–330 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    M.H. Gordon, The mechanism of antioxidant action in vitro. in Food Antioxidants, ed. by B.J.F. Hudson (Elsevier Applied science, London, 1990), pp 1–18Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shruthi Prabakaran
    • 1
  • Lavanya Ramu
    • 2
  • Sudha Veerappan
    • 2
  • Brindha Pemiah
    • 2
  • Niraimathi Kannappan
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Chemical and BiotechnologySASTRA UniversityThanjavurIndia
  2. 2.Centre for Advanced Research in Indian System of Medicine (CARISM)SASTRA UniversityThanjavurIndia

Personalised recommendations