Skip to main content

Variations in banana properties


Samples prepared from different bananas and from different parts of a banana may vary in their properties, which may cause variations in the final results in experiments. Therefore, assessment of variation in the samples’ properties is necessary, and it can be evaluated using statistical analysis. In this work, the variation in banana properties—colour, texture, moisture and sugar contents—within and between bananas were assessed statistically using a two-stage nested design test and the two-sample t-test. Results show that the variation of properties is significant for bananas with different degrees of ripeness. This finding suggests that samples can be prepared from different parts of the bananas provided that the bananas are at the same degrees of ripeness. It was also found that the location of sample in the drying chamber did not affect the measured properties of the drying bananas, significantly. The tests performed for banana texture using a laboratory apparatus produced results that were similar to those performed using a dynamic mechanical analyzer. This suggests that the use of highly-sophisticated instruments in the texture analysis of dried fruit in terms of the apparent modulus is not crucial.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7


  1. 1.

    R. Baini, T.A.G. Langrish, Choosing an appropriate drying model for intermittent and continuous drying of bananas. J. Food Eng. 79(1), 75–84 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    R. Baini, T.A.G. Langrish, An assessment of the mechanisms for diffusion in the drying of bananas. J. Food Eng. 85(2), 201–214 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    R. Baini, T.A.G. Langrish, Assessment of colour development in dried bananas-measurements and implications for modelling. J. Food Eng. 93(2), 177–182 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    K.A. Taiwo, O. Adeyemi, Influence of blanching on the drying and rehydration of banana slices. Afr. J. Food Sci. 3(10), 307–315 (2009)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    E.E. Abano, L.K. Sam-Amoah, Effects of different pretreatments on drying characteristics of banana slices. J. Eng. Appl. Sci. 6(3), 121–128 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    M. Foster, E.R. Rodrίguez, J.D. Martin, C.D. Romero, Distribution of nutrients in edible banana pulp. Food Technol. Biotechnol. 41(2), 167–171 (2003)

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    A. Hardisson, C. Rubio, A. Baez, M. Martin, R. Alvarez, E. Diaz, Mineral composition of the banana (Musa acuminate) from the Island of Tenerife. Food. Chem. 73(2), 153–161 (2001)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    A. Redman, Moisture variation in dried hardwood timber. Forest and Wood Products Research and Development Corporation (2004)

  9. 9.

    S.J. Cabardo, T.A.G. Langrish, Variability in transport properties for blackbutt timber in New South Wales: Within and between-tree variability. Asia-Pac. J. Chem. Eng. 14(1–2), 173–181 (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    N. Toontom, M. Meenune, W. Posri, S. Lertsiri, Effect on drying method on physical and chemical quality, hotness and volatile falvour characteristics of dried chilli. Int. Food Res. J. 19(3), 1023–1031 (2012)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    N. Daniels, Variations in Coffee Processing and their Impact on Quality and Consistency. (Michigan Technological University, Houghton, 2009)

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    J.F. Thompson, J. Knutson, B. Jenkins, Analysis of variability in rice milling appraisals. Appl. Eng. Agric. 6(2), 194–198 (1990)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    A. Sirijariyawat, S. Charoenrein, Freezing characteristics and thawing of four fruit types. Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol 34(5), 517–523 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    F. Henriques, R.P.F. Guine,, M.J. Barroca, Influence of drying treatment on physical properties of pumpkin. Croat. J. Food Technol. Biotechnol. Nutr 7(Special Issue), 53–58 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    C.F. Morris, M.J. Pitts, A.D. Bettge, K. Pecka, G.E. King, P.J. McCluskey, Compressive strength of wheat endosperm: analysis of endosperm bricks. Cereal Chem. 85(3), 351–358 (2008)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    S.R. Nurul, R. Asmah, Variability in nutritional composition and phytochemical properties of red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) from Malaysia and Australia. Int. Food Res. J. 21(4), 1689–1697 (2014)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    A.S. Choo, W.K. Yong, Antioxidant properties of two species of Hylocereus fruits. Adv. Appl. Sci. Res. 2(3), 418–425 (2011)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    R. Chandra, A.S. Lohakare, D.B. Karuppannan, A. Maity, N.V. Singh, V.T. Jadhav, Variability studies of physico-chemical properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum, L.) using a scoring technique. Fruits 68, 135–146 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    M. Radunić, M.J. Špika, S.G. Ban, J. Gadže, J.C. Díaz-Pérez, D. Maclean, Physical and chemical properties of pomegranate fruit accessions from Croatia. Food. Chem. 177, 53–60 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    A.D. Hernández-Fuentes, A. Trapala-Islas, C. Gallegos-Vásquez, R.G. Campos-Montiel, J.M. Pinedo-Espinoza, S.H. Guzmán-Maldonado, Physicochemical variability and nutritional and functional characteristics of xoconostles (opuntia spp.) accessions from Mexico. Fruits 70(2), 109–116 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    N.C. Onuegbu, N.C. Ihediohanma, Some proximate analysis of African pear (Dacryodes Edulis). J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manag. 12(1), 83–85 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    M. Manzoor, F. Anwar, N. Saari, M. Ashraf, Variations of antioxidant characteristics and mineral contents in pulp and peel of different apple (Nalus domestica Borkh.) cultivars from Pakistan. Molecules 17, 390–407 (2012)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    E. Karababa, Y. Coşkuner, S. Aksay, Some physical fruits properties of Cactus Pear (Opuntia spp) that grow in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey. J. Prof. Assoc. Cactus Dev. 6, 1–8 (2004)

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    V. Akbarpour, K. Hemmati, M. Sharifani, Physical and chemical properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit in maturation stage. Am-Eurasian J. Agric. Environ. Sci. 6(4), 411–416 (2009)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    M. Manzoor, F. Anwar, Z. Mahmood, U. Rashid, M. Ashraf, Variation in minerals, phenolics and antioxidant activity of peel and pulp of different varieties of peach (Prunus persica L.) fruit from Pakistan Molecules. Molecules 17, 6491–6506 (2012)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    S. Thakur, K. Vidyasagaran, Influence of zonal variation on physical characteristics of artocarpus hirsutus fruit and sizewise variation in biochemical composition of the fruit. J. Recent Adv. Agric. 2(6), 263–270 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    D.C. Montgomery, Design and Analysis of Experiments, 3rd edn. (Wiley, Hoboken, 1991), pp. 28–606

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    N. Boudhrioua, C. Michon, G. Cuvelier, C. Bonazzi, Influence of ripeness and air temperature on changes in banana texture during drying. J. Food Eng. 55(2), 115–121 (2002)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    D.M. Barrett, J.C. Beaulieu, R. Shewfelt, Color, flavor, texture and nutritional quality of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables: Desirable levels, instrumental and sensory measurement, and the effects of processing. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 50, 369–389 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    J.A. Abbott, Quality measurement of fruits and vegetables. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 15, 207–225 (1998)

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to R. Baini.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Baini, R., Langrish, T.A.G., Rahman, M.R. et al. Variations in banana properties. Food Measure 11, 1045–1055 (2017).

Download citation


  • Variation
  • Statistical analysis
  • Banana properties
  • Colour
  • Texture
  • Moisture content
  • Sugar content
  • Drying