Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) has a growing interest from both food manufacturers and consumers due to its medicinal and functional traits. Peel is a major waste from cactus pear juice industry accounting for about 38 % of the fruit weight. New concept of snacks preparation has been developed using instant controlled pressure drop (Détente instantanée controlee, DIC) techniques that provide a texturing stage between initial and final hot air drying stages. In this study, the application of DIC of cactus pear peel (CPP) was performed to be used as starch-free snacks with functional attributes. DIC resulted in high crispness CPP snacks with improved structural and nutritional attributes as well as high relative expansion ratio (up to 21 times). DIC expanded CPP snacks exhibited cutting force (3.34 N) that was much lower than untreated CPP (19.41 N). It is worth noting that optimized DIC treatment (P = 0.6 MPa for t = 15 s) allowed more availability of phenolic compounds and β-carotene by 83 and 551 %, respectively. In addition, antioxidant activity was increased up to 53 %. Results showed that steam pressure had significant effect on fat and alcohol insoluble solids (AIS) contents, wherein the correlation coefficients revealed critical relationships between structural and biochemical availabilities. Therefore, DIC could be used as an innovative technology to value this by-product leading to manufacture of crispy CPP snacks with high nutritious quality. There was a significant difference among the DIC treated and untreated CPP in respect to sensory properties, DIC treated CPP at operation conditions of saturated steam pressure = 0.6 MPa and processing time = 15 had the highest acceptability.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
S. Lahsasni, M. Kouhila, M. Vignonand M. Ahrouz, Impact of convective solar drying on the colour and the composition out of free sugars of the cladode, the peel and the fruit of a cactus inerme of Opuntia ficus indica. Phys. Chem. News 18, 89–94 (2004)
A. Epsinosa, P. Zanabria; A. Borrocal; M. Jara; G. Zorilla, T. Medina, Some chemical properties and preliminary trials on preservation of fruits and juice of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica). Fruits 28, 285–289 (1973)
P. Robert, V. Torres, P. García, C. Vergara, C. Sáenz, The encapsulation of purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) pulp by using polysaccharide-proteins as encapsulating agents. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 60, 1039–1045 (2015)
E. Bustos, Alcoholic beverage from chilean Opuntia ficus indica. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 32(3), 228–229 (1981)
W. Sawaya, H. Khatchodourian, W. Safi, H. Almuhammad, Chemical characterization of prickly pear pulp, Opuntia ficus indica, and the manufacturing of prickly pear jam. Intern. J. Food Sci. Technol. 18(2):183–193 (1983)
C. Saenz, P. Mecklenburg, A. Estevez, E. Sepulveda, Natural liquid sweetener from cactus pear: obtention and characteristics. Acta Hort. 438, 135–138 (1996)
M. Oliveira, C. Rodrigues, E. Dos Reis, J. Nozaki, Production of fungal protein by solid substrate fermentation of cactus Cereus peruvianus and Opuntia ficus indica. Quim. Nova 24(3), 307–310 (2001)
S. Laban, Studies on fruit by-products. M. Sc. Thesis, Food Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Egypt, 1998
T.E. Moussa-Ayoub, K. Youssef, S.K. El-Samahy, L.W. Kroh, S. Rohn, Flavonol profile of cactus fruits (Opuntia ficus-indica) enriched cereal-based extrudates: authenticity and impact of extrusion. Food Res. Int. 78, 442–447 (2015)
M. Ramadan, J. Mörsel, Recovered lipids from prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica (L.)Mill) peel: a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, natural antioxidant vitamins and sterols. Food Chem. 83(3), 447–456 (2003)
M. Forni, A. Polesello, A preliminary characterization of some pectins from quince fruit (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) and prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) peel. Carbohydr. Polym. 23(4), 231–234 (1994)
M. Feugang, K. Patricia, Z. Daming, S. Florian, Z. Changping, Nutritional and medicinal use of Cactus pear (Opuntia spp.) cladodes and fruits. Front Biosci 11, 2574–2589 (2006)
Chou, S. and K. Chua, New hybrid drying technologies for heat sensitive foodstuffs. Trends Food Sci. Technol, 12(10), 359–369 (2001)
M. Karel, in Physical structure and quality of dehydrated foods, ed. by A.S. Mujumdar, I. Filková. Drying, vol 91 (Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, 1991), pp. 26–35
J. Bimbenet, A. Lebert, in Food drying and quality interactions, ed. by A.S. Mujumdar Drying’92 (Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 1992), pp. 42–57
C. Ratti, Hot air and freeze-drying of high value foods: a review, J. Food Eng. 49(4), 311–319 (2001)
Z. Kobus, Application of ultrasonic treatment in pressing process of grape juice. Acta Agrophysica 6(1), 125–131 (2005)
F. Fernandes, S. Rodrigues Ultrasound as pre-treatment for drying of fruits: dehydration of banana. Food Eng. 82(2), 261–267 (2007)
K. Allaf, P. Vidal, Feasibility study of a new process of drying/swelling by instantaneous Decompression toward vacuum of in pieces vegetables in view of a rapid re hydration. Gradient Activity Plotting University of Technology Of Compiegne UTC N°CR/89/103, Industrial SILVA-LAON partner (1988)
S. Rezzoug, Z. Rezzoug, J. Mazoyer, M. Jeannin, K. Allaf, Effect of instantaneous controlled pressure drop process on the hydration capacity of scleroglucan: optimisation of operating conditions by response surface methodology. Carbohydr. Polym. 42(1), 73–84 (2000)
C. Besombes, B. Zougali, K. Allaf, Instant controlled pressure drop extraction of lavandin essential oils: fundamentals and experimental studies. Chromatography A 1217(44), 6807–6815 (2010)
T. Allaf, K. Allaf, Instant Controlled Pressure Drop (D.I.C.) in Food Processing; From Fundamental to Industrial Applications, ed. by V. Gustavo, Barbosa-Canovas. Food Engineering Series (Washington State University, (USA, 2014)
N. Albitar, S. Mounir, C. Besombes, K. Allaf, Improving the drying of onion using the instant controlled pressure drop technology. Drying Technol 29(9), 993–1001 (2011)
S. Mounir, C. Besombes, N. Al-Bitar, K. Allaf, Study of instant controlled pressure drop DIC-treatment in manufacturing snack and expanded granule powder of apple and onion. Drying Technol 29(3), 331–341 (2011b)
M. Bourne, Food texture and viscosity: concept and measurement (Elsevier Press, New York, 2002)
AOAC, Official methods of analysis of association of official analytical chemists, 17th edn. (A.O.A.C international, Washington, D.C, 2000)
S. Vernon, O. Rudolf, M. Rosa, Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin–ciocalteu reagent. Methods Enzymol. 299, 152–178 (1999)
G. Yen, H. Chen, Antioxidant activity of various tea extracts in relation to their antimutagenicity. J. Agric. Food Chem. 43(1), 27–32 (1995)
O. Munzuroglu, F. Karatas, H. Geckil, The vitamin and selenium contents of apricot fruit of different varieties cultivated in different geographical regions. Food Chem. 83(2), 205–212 (2003)
M. Namir, A. Suleiman, M.F.R. Hassanien, Characterization and functionality of alcohol insoluble solids from tomato pomace as fat substitute in low fat cake. J. Food Meas. Charact. 9, 557–563 (2015)
E.R. Farnworth, M. Lagacé, R. Couture, V. Yaylayan, B. Stewart, Thermal processing, storage conditions, and the composition and physical properties of orange juice. Food Res. Int. 34(1), 25–30 (2001)
N. Louka, K. Allaf, Expansion ratio and color improvement of dried vegetables texturized by a new process ‘‘controlled sudden decompression to the vacuum’’: application to potatoes, carrots and onions. J. Food Eng. 65(2), 233–243 (2004)
S. Mounir, D. Hall, K. Allaf, Characterization of pure cheese snacks and expanded granule powders textured by the instant controlled pressure drop (DIC) process, Dairy sci. Technol. 91, 441–455 (2011a)
E. Villaume, E. El-Boustani, E. Sauvaire, Y. Méjean, Composition of pulp, skin and seeds of prickly pears fruit (Opuntia ficus indica sp.). Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 52(3), 263–270 (1998)
H. Siliha, K. Giershner, Effect of heat treatments on cell wall polysaccharides of canned carrots, ed. by H. Omran, H. Buckenhuskes. Hydrocolloids in food processing, Proceedings of the Intl. Conference, Suez Canal Univ., Ismailia, Egypt, 29th Nov–1st Dec 1994. (Suez Canal Univ. Press, Ismailia, 1995)
J. Thibault, M. Ralet, G. Della Valle, Effects of extrusion-cooking on pectin-rich materials. Prog. Biotech. 14, 425–437 (1996)
S. Mounir, T. Allaf, A. Mujumdar, K. Allaf, Swell drying: coupling instant controlled pressure drop DIC to standard convection drying processes to intensify transfer phenomena and improve quality-an overview. Dry. Technol. 30(14), 1508–1531 (2012)
P. Ankit, P. Nigel, P. Sara, B. Francis, G. Downey, Effect of thermal and high pressure processing on antioxidant activity and instrumental colour of tomato and carrot purées. Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 10(1), 16–22 (2009b)
P. Ankit, P. Nigel, P. Sara, B. Francis, Impact of high pressure processing on total antioxidant activity, phenolic, ascorbic acid, anthocyanin content and colour of strawberry and blackberry purées. Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 10(3), 308–313 (2009a)
W. Huang, X. Bi, X. Zhang, X. Liao, X. Hu, J. Wu, Comparative study of enzymes, phenolics, carotenoids and color of apricot nectars treated by high hydrostatic pressure and high temperature short time. Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 18, 74–82 (2013)
A. Van Loey, M. Hendrickx, Pressure and temperature stability of water-soluble antioxidants in orange and carrot juice: a kinetic study. Euro. Food Res. Technol. 2, 161–166 (2004)
ABCAR-DIC Process, La Rochelle, France supported this work providing all DIC facilities and competencies needed.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they do not have any conflict of interest.
Research involving human and animal rights
This study does not involve any human or animal testing.
Written informed consent was obtained from all study participants.
About this article
Cite this article
Namir, M., Elzahar, K., Ramadan, M.F. et al. Cactus pear peel snacks prepared by instant pressure drop texturing: Effect of process variables on bioactive compounds and functional properties. Food Measure 11, 388–400 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11694-016-9407-z
- Opuntia ficus-indica
- Instant controlled pressure drop
- Chemical composition
- Textural attributes
- Bioactive component