Skip to main content

Rheological characteristics of vegetable oils as affected by deep frying of French fries


Fatty acid composition and rheological characteristics of sunflower oil (SO), cottonseed oil (CO) and palm olein (PO) during deep frying for 4–16 h were investigated. In the different oils, linoleic acid decreased while palmitic, stearic and oleic acids increased in the bath oil during frying. Total phenolic content (TPC) in different oils increased during frying and strongly correlated with frying time. As frying progressed, it was observed that the rate of increase in TPC was relatively slower in PO than in the SO and CO. The shear stress versus shear rate results was fitted to Newtonian, Bingham and Herschel–Bulkley rheological models. The flow behaviour of fresh and fried SO, CO and PO was recorded at 25 °C. Fresh oils showed Newtonian behaviour with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99 at 25 °C and slight non-Newtonian behaviour after frying. Palm olein showed higher increase in viscosity in comparison to CO and SO. Rheological parameters of vegetables oils showed great changes, wherein the highest change in viscosity was recorded after 16 h of frying. Palm olein had higher flow behavior parameters than SO and CO. The increase in frying time caused an increase in K, ηB, τ0HB, τ0B, and η values, while the n values decreased with increasing the frying time. The viscosities of oils were plotted against the levels of C18:1 and C18:2 wherein highly positive correlations were found between them (R2 = 0.99). The temperature dependence of viscosity was studied by using the Arrhenius relationship and the activation energy indicates the sensitivity of viscosity to changes in temperature. It could be concluded that the rheological parameters can provide an overall estimate of oil quality during frying.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3


  1. 1.

    H. Abramovic, C. Klofutar, The temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity for some vegetable oils. Acta Chim. Slov. 45(1), 69–77 (1998)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    American Oil Chemists’ Society Official Methods and Recommended Practices. 5th ed., ed. by D. Firestone, American Oil Chemists’ Society (Champaign, IL 1998)

  3. 3.

    M. Arens, E. Schulte, K. Weber, Fettsäuremethylester, Umesterung mit Trimethylsulfoniumhydroxid (Schnellverfahren). Fat Sci Technol 96, 67–68 (1994)

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    M.C. Bourne, Food texture and viscosity: concept and measurement, 2nd edn. (Elsevier, London, 2002). ISBN: 0121190625

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    A. Chatzilazarou, O. Gortzi, S. Lalas, E. Zoidis, J. Tsaknis, Physicochemical changes of olive oil and selected vegetable oils during frying. J. Food Lipids 13(1), 27–35 (2006)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Y.B. Che Man, W. Ammawath, R.A. Rahman, S. Yusof, Quality characteristics of refined, bleached and deodorized palm olein and banana chips after deep-fat frying. J. Sci. Food Agric. 83, 395–401 (2003)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    W.L. Clark, G.W. Serbia, Safety aspects of frying fats and oils. Food Technol. 45(10), 84–89, 94 (1991)

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    A. Fauziah, I. Razali, S. Nor-Aini, Frying performance of palm olein and high oleic sunflower oil during batch frying of potato crisps. Palm Oil Dev. 3, 1–7 (2000)

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    R. Fox, Regulation in the European Union, in Frying. Improving Quality, ed. by J.B. Rossell (Woodhead Publishing Ltd, Cambridge, 2001), pp. 18–48

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    H. Gloria, J.M. Aguilera, Assessment of the quality of heated oils by differential scanning calorimetry. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46, 1363–1368 (1998)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    A. Grau, F. Guardiola, J. Boatella, A. Barroeta, R. Codony, Measurement of 2-thiobarbituric acid values in dark chicken meat through derivative spectrophotometry: influence of various parameters. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48, 1155–1159 (2000)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    M.K. Gupta, Selection of frying oil, in Frying Technology and Practices, ed. by M.K. Gupta, K. Warner, P.J. White (AOCS Press, Champaign, 2004), pp. 29–36

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    J. Huang, S. Sathivel, Thermal and rheological properties and the effects of temperature on the viscosity and oxidation rate of unpurified salmon oil. J. Food Eng. 89, 105–111 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    O.I. Igwe, The effects of temperature on the viscosity of vegetable oils in solution. Ind. Crops Prod. 19, 185–190 (2004)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    G.A. Jacobson, Quality control in deep-fat frying operations. Food Technol. 45(2), 72–74 (1991)

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    N. Jorge, L.A. Guaraldo, M.C. Dobarganes, Influence of fatty acid composition on the formation of polar of polar glycerides and polar fatty acids in sunflower oils heated at frying temperature. Grasas Aceites 48, 17–24 (1997)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    J. Kim, D.N. Kim, S.H. Lee, S.H. Yoo, S. Lee, Correlation of fatty acid composition of vegetable oils with rheological behaviour and oil uptake. Food Chem. 118, 398–402 (2010)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    S. Lin, C.C. Akoh, A.E. Reynolds, The recovery of used frying oils with various adsorbents. J. Food Lipids 5, 1–16 (1998)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    M. Maskan, Change in color and rheological behavior of sunflower seed oil during frying and after adsorbent treatment of used oil. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 218, 20–25 (2003)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    A. Prescha, A. Swieüdrych, J. Biernat, J. Szopa, Increase in lipid content in potato tubers modified by 14-3-3 Gene overexpression. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49, 3638–3643 (2001)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    L.A. Quinchia, M.A. Delgado, C. Valencia, J.M. Franco, C. Gallegos, Viscosity modification of different vegetable oils with EVA copolymer for lubricant applications. Ind. Crops Prod. 32, 607–612 (2010)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    M.F. Ramadan, M.M.A. Amer, A.M. Sulieman, Correlation between physicochemical analysis and radical scavenging activity of vegetable oil blends as affected by frying of French fries. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 108, 670–678 (2006)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    M.F. Ramadan, R.M. Elsanhoty, Lipid classes, fatty acids and bioactive lipids of genetically modified potato Spunta with Cry V gene. Food Chem. 133, 1169–1176 (2012)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    A. Romero, C. Cuesta, F.J. Sanchez-Muniz, Effect of oil replenishment during deep-fat frying of frozen foods in sunflower oil and high-oleic acid sunflower oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 75, 161–167 (1998)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    A. Romero, F.J. Sanchez-Muniz, C. Cuesta, Deep fat frying of frozen foods in sunflower oil. Fatty acid composition in fryer oil and frozen prefried potatoes. J. Sci. Food Agric. 80, 215–2141 (2000)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    M.F. San Martin-Gonzalez, A. Roach, F. Harte, Rheological properties of corn oil emulsions stabilized by commercial micellar casein and high pressure homogenization. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 42, 307–311 (2009)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    J.C.O. Santos, I.M.G. Santos, A.G. Souza, Effect of heating and cooling on rheological parameters of edible vegetable oils. J. Food Eng. 67(4), 401–405 (2005)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    J.L. Sebedio, C. Dobarganes, G. Margnes, I. Wester, W.W. Christie, G. Dobson, F. Zwobada, I.M. Chardigmy, T.H. Mariot, R. Lahtinen, Industrial production of crisps and pre-fried French fries using sunflower oils. Grasas Aceites 47, 5–13 (1996)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    J.L. Sebedio, J.M. Chardingy, Physiological effects of trans and cyclic fatty acids, in Deep Frying, Chemistry Nutrition and Practical Applications, ed. by E.G. Perkins, M.D. Erickson (AOCS Press, Champaign, 1996), pp. 18–209

    Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    J.L. Sebedio, J. Kaitaranta, A. Grandgirard, Y. Malkki, Quality assessment of industrial prefried French fries. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 68, 299–302 (1991)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    S.G. Stevenson, M. Vaisey-Genser, N.A. Eskin, Quality control in the use of deep frying oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 61, 1102–1108 (1984)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Y.C. Tseng, R. Moreira, X. Sun, Total frying use time effects on soybean oil deterioration and on tortilla chip quality. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 31, 287–294 (1996)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    V.K. Tyagi, A.K. Vasishtha, Changes in characteristics and composition of oils during deep fat frying. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 73, 499–506 (1996)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    X.-Q. Xu, V.H. Tran, M. Palmer, K. White, P. Salisbury, Chemical and physical analyses and sensory evaluation of six deep-frying oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 76, 1091–1099 (1999)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to M. F. R. Hassanien.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Hassanien, M.F.R., Sharoba, A.M. Rheological characteristics of vegetable oils as affected by deep frying of French fries. Food Measure 8, 171–179 (2014).

Download citation


  • Rheological parameters
  • Viscosity
  • Fatty acids
  • Frying
  • Sunflower oil
  • Cottonseed oil
  • Palm oil