Advertisement

Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization

, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp 194–198 | Cite as

Variations in some heavy metals’ level during processing of soft cheese

  • Hend A. ElbarbaryEmail author
  • Ahlam F. Hamouda
Original Paper

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the content of lead, cadmium, aluminum, copper and mercury during Feta cheese manufacturing by using atomic absorption spectrometer. Results revealed that lead and mercury concentrations were higher after curdling and in fresh cheese after salting than other elements. Cadmium was detected at low concentrations in raw milk, pasteurized milk, after curdling and fresh cheese (0.053, 0.10, 0.20 and 0.24 mg/kg, respectively). Aluminum concentration did not change seriously during different steps of cheese manufacturing. On the other hand, the concentration of copper increased from 2.83 ± 0.97 mg/kg in raw milk to 3.25 ± 1.06 mg/kg in fresh cheese. It was concluded that the curdling and cheese after salting are the major technological steps that affect the concentration of some heavy metals rather than heat treatment.

Keywords

Atomic absorption spectrometer Heavy metals Cheese 

References

  1. 1.
    N. Yuzbasi, E. Sezgin, M. Yildirim, N. Yildirim, Survey of lead, cadmium, iron, copper and zinc in Kasar cheese. Food Chem. 20, 464–469 (2003)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    International Dairy Federation (IDF), in Monograph on Residue and Contaminants in Milk and Milk Products (Chap. 6), ed. by M. Carl (Wiley, Brussels, 1991), pp. 112–119Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. Orak, M. Altun, E. Ercag, Survey of heavy metals in Turkish white cheese. Ital. J. Food Sci. 17, 95–100 (2005)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. Liu, R.A. Goyer, M.P. Waalkes, Toxic effects of metals, in Casaratte and Doull’s Toxicology: The basic science of poisons, 7th edn., ed. by C.D. Klaassen (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2008), pp. 931–980Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. Carl, Heavy metals and other trace elements. Monograph on residues and contaminants in milk and milk products. “IDF”, Belgium. Special Issue 9101. 112–119 (1999)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J.M. Llobet, G. Falco, C. Casas, A. Teixido, J.L. Domingo, Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead in common foods and estimated daily Intake by children, adolescents, adult and seniors of Catalonia, Spain. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51, 838–842 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    G. Tolg, Where is analysis of trace elements in biotic matrices going to?, in Trace Element Analytical Chemistry in Medicine and Biology, vol. 5, ed. by P. Bratter, P. Schramel (Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, 1988), pp. 119–135Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    E. Coni, S. Caroli, D. Ianni, A. Bocca, Preliminary evaluation of the factors influencing the trace element content of milk and dairy products. Food Chem. 52, 123–130 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. Anastasioa, R. Caggianob, M. Macchiatoc, C. Paolod, M. Ragostae, S. Painof, M.L. Cortesia, Heavy metal concentrations in dairy products from sheep milk collected in two regions of Southern Italy. Acta Vet. Scand. 47, 69–74 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    E. Coni, A. Bocca, P. Coppolelli, S. Caroli, C. Cavallucci, M.T. Marinucci, Minor and trace element content in sheep and goat milk and dairy products. Food Chem. 57, 253–260 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M.M. EL-Sheikh, A.F. Farrage, N.M. Shahein, S. EL-Shibiny, Low fat Domiati cheese with particulate whey protein concentrate (PWPC). Egypt. J. Dairy Sci. 29, 331–342 (2001)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    A.S. Mehanna, M.A. Rashed, An attempt to improve the keeping quality of Tallaga cheese by using milk treated with carbon dioxide. Egypt. J. Dairy Sci. 18, 377–388 (1990)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists), Lead, Cadmium, Zinc, Copper and Iron in Foods, Atomoc Absorption Spectrometry after Microwave Digestion. Official Method 999.10. Official Methods of analysis of AOAC international, 18th edn (2005)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    G.M. Clarke, R.E. Kempson, Introduction to the Design and Analysis of Experiments. Arnold, a Member of the Holder Headline Group, 1st edn. (Arnold, London, 1997)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    HMRC, Heavy Metals Remediation Committee of the Vashon Maury Island Community Council (2003). http://iere.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/health-care-manual.pdf. Accessed 19 May 2009
  16. 16.
    European Communities Regulation (EC), Setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Off. J. Eur. Commun. L 77/1 (2001)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    L. Järup, Hazards of heavy metal contamination. Br. Med. Bull. 68, 167–182 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    R. Ranau, J. Oehlenschlager, H. Steinhart, Aluminum levels of fish fillets baked and grilled in aluminum foil. Food Chem. 73, 1–6 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Turk Fod Codex (TFC), Regulation of setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs, Turkish Official Gazette, Iss: 24908, Oct 16, 2002Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Egyptian Standard, Maximum levels of heavy metal contaminants in food. Egyptian Organization for Standardization and Quality Control, E.S., No. 2360 (1993)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    A.M. Deeb, Trace metals concentrations in cheese collected from Kafer El-Sheik Governorate, Egypt. Assiut Vet. Med. J. 56, 75–84 (2010)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    C. Polprasert, Heavy metal pollution in the Chaephraya River Estuary, Thailand. Water Res. 16, 775–784 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    M.I. Garcia, P.P. Puerto, M.F. Baquero, E.R. Rodriguez, J.D. Martin, C.D. Romero, Mineral and trace element concentrations of dairy products from goat’s milk produced in Tenerif (Canary Islands). Int. Dairy J. 16, 182–185 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    I.H. Amer, M.S. El Sayed, S.F. Abd El Aal, The preliminary content of heavy metal residues in raw cow’s milk and its distribution in some dairy products. Zag. Vet. Med. J. 33, 263–271 (2005)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    S. Manahan, Toxiological Chemistry. A Guide to Toxic Substances in Chemistry (Brooks/cole publishing Co, Belmont, 1989)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food Control, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineBenha UniversityMoshtohorEgypt
  2. 2.Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineBenha UniversityMoshtohorEgypt

Personalised recommendations