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Evolutionary Mechanisms Affecting the Multivariate Divergence in Some Myotis Species (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae)

Abstract

Phenotypic evolutionary rates were measured for 27 craniometric characters in 12 extant OTUs from the bat genus Myotis (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae). Squared Mahalanobis distance was used as a multivariate measure for amount of divergence, and squared Mahalanobis distance weighted by time was used as a measure for the rate of divergence. Estimates for the rates of divergence were found to be consistent with random walk hypothesis. Thus, the divergence in Myotis could be guided by random drift and mutations. The high dispersion in rate estimates suggests also a possible input of randomly fluctuating selection. The highest rates were recorded for divergence between M. myotisM. blythii species group and the other OTUs. Rates of divergence between the subspecies of M. blythii occur to be lesser than rates of divergence between the earlier diverged species, their divergence could probably be slowed down by stabilizing selection. Size-adjusted data appeared to be lesser then the initial data, and it can be concluded that both size and shape were involved in divergence of Myotis species. The skeletal characters in bats are known to be extremely conservative during long-term evolution, however, the possibility for random walk at short time interval implies that bat evolution is constrained rather ecologically and biomechanically than genetically or developmentally.

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Acknowledgments

We thank the curators and staffs of the zoological museums, who gave an opportunity to work with collections. We are grateful to V. M. Tytar, P. P. Strelkov, and I. K. Rakhmatulina for help in preparation of our research. Thanks also are due to the reviewers for valuable comments, suggestions and criticisms that improved the paper. M. J. Anderson, S. J. Arnold, W. Bogdanowicz, T. P. Eiting, P. H. Gartwaite, S. R. Hoofer, I. Horáček, E. A. Housworth, P. Jolicoeur, R. Lande, M. Macholán, B. F. J. Manly, P. D. Polly kindly presented copies of books and papers hardly accessible in Eastern Europe.

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Correspondence to Igor Dzeverin.

Appendices

Appendices

Appendix A. List of the Specimens Examined by the Authors

Myotis brandtii

ZINR 35063, 40727, 41669, 69041, 69043; ZMMU 117026.

Myotis emarginatus

NMNH 270/11; ZMMU 21535, 42775, 43760–43762, 43764.

Myotis dasycneme

ZINR 38540; ZMMU 10494, 13756–13759, 13764, 13766–13768, 13770, 13771, 15453, 15459–15463, 15465, 15468, 15611, 15613, 15614, 15621, 15627–15629, 15631, 15633, 15639, 15640, 15642, 15643, 29360, 29371, 29406, 29408–29410, 29412, 29418, 29419, 29421, 29423, 83991, 104484–104487, 104490–104492, 104494–104496, 104798, 135841.

Myotis capaccinii

ZINR 35045, 35048, 48035.

Myotis daubentonii

NMNH 1755/6, 2608/7; VDMU 594; ZINR 33469, 38802, 55691.

Myotis bechsteinii

NMNH 9558/1; ZMKU 2859.

Myotis bombinus

ZINR 5150; ZMMU 104379.

Myotis nattereri

IZA 610; VDMU 199; ZINR 55695, 46638; ZMMU 83995.

Myotis blythii blythii

NMNH 2617/33; ZINR 62131, 62133, 62134, 62136, 62137, 62139–62143, 62145–62148; ZMKU 3842, 3844; ZMMU 71109, 71111, 71113, 83985, 83987, 94711–94714, 94716, 100134–100136, 100139, 100141–100149, 100153, 100155–100158, 100164–100167, 100170–100172, 100174, 100176, 100177, 100179, 100180, 100182, 100184–100188, 100191, 100193, 100408–100410, 100413, 100414, 100416–100419, 100421, 100423, 100425, 100428, 100432, 100434, 100435, 100437–100443, 100445–100449, 100452, 111843, 150329.

Myotis blythii omari

IZA 177–183, 185, 186, 188, 207, 293, 294, 296, 297, 299, 300, 301, 303, 306, 309, 310, 313, 315, 316, 318, 319, 325, 326, 328–331, 333, 334, 339, 351, 361; NMNH 840/2; TCH 1/1, 2/1, 2/2; VDMU 2257, 2260, 2262; ZINR 11227, 11227bis, 11243, 11244, 11257, 11276, 11289, 11293, 11325, 11330, 35055–35057, 59565, 59569, 63906, 63908–63914, 63922, 63925; ZMMU 7818, 7819, 7822, 12534, 12535, 29207, 29212, 29275, 40912, 46603, 46605, 46606, 46893, 83986, 83988, 83989, 101048, 101050–101052, 101054, 102394–102396, 102398–102400, 102402, 102403, 102405, 105054, 135840.

Myotis blythii oxygnathus

NMNH 200/6, 201/7, 204/10, 205/11, 207/13, 208/14, 209/15, 211/17, 213/19, 214/20, 216/22, 220/26, 221/27, 222/28, 839/1, 5668/45, 5670/43, 5672/45; ZINR 35050–35053, 48053, 48055–48057, 55662, 55669, 55672, 55673; ZMKU 1830, 1839, 1844, 1848, 1850, 1873, 1881, 1885, 1890, 1894, 1895, 4888, 4890, 4892–4895; ZMMU 74647, 83984, 100759, 100760, 100762, 100765, 100768, 100773, 100775, 100776, 100782–100786, 100791, 100793, 100795–100797, 100799, 100801–100803, 101031, 101032, 101034, 101035, 101038.

Myotis myotis

NMNH 230/4, 233/7, 243/17, 245/19, 247/21, 249/23, 841/1, 2615/25, 2616/26, 4302/24; ZMKU 1897–1905; ZMMU 49163, 74649, 83990, 103902, 103905, 103910; ZINR 35042, 35043, 35044, 48062–48066.

Collections acronyms: Institute of Zoology of the National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Baku, Azerbaijan (IZA); National Museum of Natural History of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine (NMNH); Tchernogolovka biological station of Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow region, Russia (TCH); Department of Vertebrate Zoology of Moscow University, Moscow, Russia (VDMU); Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Science, St. Petersburg, Russia (ZINR); Zoological Museum of Kiev University, Kiev, Ukraine (ZMKU); Zoological Museum of Moscow University, Moscow, Russia (ZMMU).

Appendix B: Craniometric Characters

Cross-Sectional Measurements

  1. 1.

    Maximum distance between the coronoid processes of the mandible.

  2. 2.

    Maximum distance between the condyloid processes of the mandible.

  3. 3.

    Maximum distance between the angular processes of the mandible.

  4. 4.

    Breadth of the braincase.

  5. 5.

    Zygomatic breadth at the widest point.

  6. 6.

    Minimum interorbital breadth.

  7. 7.

    M3–M3 breadth.

Paired longitudinal measurements

  1. 8.

    Greatest length of the mandible.

  2. 9.

    Length of the mandibular toothrow, C1–M3.

  3. 10.

    Distance between C1 and the tip of the coronoid process.

  4. 11.

    Distance between C1 and the condyloid process.

  5. 12.

    Distance between C1 and the angular process.

  6. 13.

    Coronoid angular distance.

  7. 14.

    General length of the skull.

  8. 15.

    Braincase length.

  9. 16.

    Condylobasal length of the skull.

  10. 17.

    Length of the maxillary toothrow, C1–M3.

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Dzeverin, I., Ghazali, M. Evolutionary Mechanisms Affecting the Multivariate Divergence in Some Myotis Species (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae). Evol Biol 37, 100–112 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11692-010-9086-3

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Keywords

  • Myotis
  • Skull
  • Shape
  • Divergence
  • Random walk
  • Selection