Obésité

, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 67–73 | Cite as

Risque parodontal chez le patient obèse

  • H. Rangé
  • C. Huchon
  • C. Poitou
  • C. Ciangura
  • A. Boillot
  • S. Czernichow
  • C. Chaussain
  • P. Bouchard
Revue Scientifique / Scientific Review
  • 122 Downloads

Résumé

De nombreuses données épidémiologiques montrent une association positive entre indice de masse corporelle et parodontites chroniques. Les parodontites sont des maladies inflammatoires multifactorielles d’origine bactérienne, dépendantes de la réponse immunitaire de l’hôte. Sans traitement, ces maladies entraînent la perte des dents par destruction du système d’attache gingivale et de l’os de soutien. La susceptibilité des patients obèses aux parodontites chroniques impliquerait l’action délétère directe des facteurs inflammatoires sécrétés par le tissu adipeux (adipokines), du stress oxydatif ou des mécanismes indirects liés aux pathologies associées à l’obésité (diabète de type 2, hypertension artérielle, dyslipidémies). Par ailleurs, les parodontites pourraient indirectement contribuer à l’obésité en induisant des troubles de la mastication dus à une augmentation globale de la mobilité et de la perte des dents. Ainsi, un examen parodontal et dentaire systématique des patients obèses devrait permettre un diagnostic et un traitement précoce améliorant la capacité de mastication et la santé orale de ces malades.

Mots clés

Obésité Maladies parodontales Parodontites Adipokines Inflammation 

Periodontal risk in obese patients

Abstract

Many epidemiological studies indicate a positive association between body mass index and chronic periodontitis. Periodontitis are multifactorial inflammatory diseases with a bacterial etiology, and are immune response dependent. Without treatment, these diseases lead to tooth loss through destruction of the gingival attachment system and the supporting bone. The chronic periodontitis susceptibility of the obese patients might involve the direct deleterious effect of inflammatory factors secreted by adipose tissue (adipokines), oxidative stress, or indirect mechanisms related to obesity-associated diseases (type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia). On the other hand, periodontitis may indirectly contribute to obesity by inducing chewing disorders due to an overall increase in teeth mobility and loss. Thus, a routine periodontal and dental examination of the obese patients should allow early diagnosis and treatment improving their chewing ability and oral health.

Keywords

Obesity Periodontal diseases Periodontitis Adipokines Inflammation 

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Copyright information

© Springer Paris 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Rangé
    • 1
  • C. Huchon
    • 2
  • C. Poitou
    • 3
    • 4
  • C. Ciangura
    • 4
  • A. Boillot
    • 1
  • S. Czernichow
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  • C. Chaussain
    • 2
  • P. Bouchard
    • 1
  1. 1.UFR d’odontologie, service d’odontologie, département de parodontologieuniversité Paris-VII-Denis-Diderot, hôpital Garancière-Rothschild (AP-HP)ParisFrance
  2. 2.UFR d’odontologie, service d’odontologieuniversité Paris-V-René-Descartes, hôpital Bretonneau 23ParisFrance
  3. 3.UMR S 872, centre de recherche biomédicale des cordeliersUniversité Paris-V-René-DescartesParisFrance
  4. 4.Département de nutrition, centre de recherche en nutrition humaineuniversité Paris-VI-Pierre-et-Marie-Curie, hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière 47-83ParisFrance
  5. 5.Département de santé publiqueuniversité Paris-XIII, hôpital Avicenne 125ParisFrance
  6. 6.Unité de recherche en épidémiologie nutritionnelle, UMR Inserm U557, Inra, CNAMuniversité Paris-XIIIParisFrance

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