Fascioliasis is caused in Venezuela by the trematode Fasciola hepatica, affecting herbivorous and human. The Venezuelan Andean region is endemic for bovine fascioliasis and its presence in humans is not known. The objective of this work was to detected positive cases of bovine and human fascioliasis by coprological and immunological techniques and determine the possible risk factors, in eight cattle farms of a Venezuelan Andean rural area.
We studied 143 samples of feces and sera of bovines, and 34 samples of feces and sera of humans. Feces were examined by several coprologic techniques, while sera were evaluated by ELISA using two antigens: crude extract (CE) and surface proteins (SP) of F. hepatica, which were previously standardized and validated.
The frequency of fascioliasis in bovines was 21% by coprology, and 49.7% by SP-ELISA. The human detection was 0% by coprology, and 29.4% by SP-ELISA. There were statistical significative differences between cattle farms, regarding to the positive results by coprology and by SP-ELISA. About the possible risk factors, statistical association was found only with the presence of snails near or in the farms and consumption of non-channeled water (river, ditch or spring), both for cattle and for humans.
The results showed that the studied area is endemic for bovine fascioliasis, the human has been in contact with F. hepatica and there are risk factors for the transmission of the parasite in the studied farms.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Alvarez Rojas C, Jex AR, Gasser RB, Scheerlinck JPY (2014) Techniques for the Diagnosis of Fasciola infections in animals: room for improvement. Adv Parasitol 85:65–107. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-800182-0.00002-7
Bargues MD, González LC, Artigas P, Mas-Coma S (2011) A new baseline for fascioliasis in Venezuela: lymnaeid vectors ascertained by DNA sequencing and analysis of their relationships with human and animal infection. Parasit Vectors 14:200. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-4-200
Botero D, Restrepo M (2012) Human parasitosis. Corporación para la Investigación, 5th edn. Bogotá, Colombia
Bradford M (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of protein utilizing the principle of protein dye binding. Anal Biochem 72:248–254
Charlier J, Vercruysse J, Morgan E, Van dijk J, Williams DJL. (2014) Recent advances in the diagnosis, impact on production and prediction of Fasciola hepatica in cattle. Parasitol 141:326–335. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0031182013001662
Chirinos AR, De Chirinos N (1993) Evaluation of the effects of bovine liver distomatosis on reproductive efficiency and dairy production. Rev Fac Cien Vet LUZ 3:35–45
Freites A, Colmenares C, Alarcón-Noya B, García ME, Díaz-Suárez O (2009) Human fasciolosis in Mara municipality, Zulia state. Venezuela: prevalence and asociated factors. Invest Clin 50:497–506
Gauta J, Pérez A, Lecuna J, García M, Aguirre A, Armas S (2011) Prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in dairy cattle of Bailadores, State of Mérida, Venezuela. Invest Clin 12:255–260
Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE) (2013) Statistical yearbook of Venezuela, vol 973. http://www.ine.gov.ve/documentos/AspectosFisicos/DivisionpoliticoTerritorial/pdf/DPTconFinesEstadisticosOperativa2013.pdf. Accessed 14 June 2020
Keisera J, Duthalera U, Utzinger J (2010) Update on the diagnosis and treatment of food-borne trematode infections. Curr Opin Infect Dis 3:513–520. https://doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0b013e32833de06a
Kostenberger K, Tichy A, Bauer K, Pless P, Wittek T (2017) Associations between fasciolosis and milk production, and the impact of anthelmintic treatment in dairy herds. Parasitol Res 116:1981–1987. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-017-5481-3
Maizels RM, Blaxter ML, Robertson BD, Selkirk ME (1991) Parasite antigens. Parasite genes: a laboratory manual for Molecular parasitology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Mas-Coma S, Bargues MD, Valero MA (2014) Diagnosis of human fascioliasis by stool and blood techniques: update for the present global scenario. Parasitol 141:1918–1946. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0031182014000869
Mas-Coma S, Bargues MD, Valero MA (2018) Human fascioliasis infection sources, their diversity, incidence factors, analytical methods and prevention measures. Parasitol 145:1665–1699. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0031182018000914
Mehmood K, Zhang H, Sabir AJ, Abbas RZ, Ijaz M, Durrani AZ et al (2017) A review on epidemiology, global prevalence and economical losses of fasciolosis in ruminants. Microb Pathog 109:253–262. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2017.06.006
Molento MB, Bennema S, Bertot J, Pritsch IC, Arenal A (2018) Bovine fascioliasis in Brazil: economic impact and forecasting. Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Rep 12:1–3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vprsr.2017.12.004
Morales G, Carreño A, Pino LA, Perdomo L (1986) Hepatic fascioliasis in bovines from Trujillo state, Venezuela. Acta Cient Venez 37:523–534
Morales GA, Pino L (2004) Fasciola hepatica and bovine liver dystomatosis in Venezuela. Diagnosis, treatment and control. Rev Dig Ceniap Hoy. www.Ceniap.Gov.Ve/Ceniaphoy/Articulos/Ne/Arti/Morales_G1/Arti/Morales_G.Htm Accessed 13 June 2020
Pérez AM (2007) Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela: historical review. Rev Fac Cien Vet UCV 48:3–14. http://ve.scielo.org/pdf/rfcv/v48n1/art01.pdf
Pointier JP, Noya O, Alarcón de Noya B, Théron A (2009) Distribution of Lymnaeidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata), intermediate snail hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 104:790–796. https://doi.org/10.1590/s0074-02762009000500022
Sarkari B, Khabisi SA (2017) Immunodiagnosis of human fascioliasis: an update of concepts and performances of the serological assays. J Clin Diagn Res 11:OE05-OE10. https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2017/26066.10086
Webb CM, Cabada MM (2018) Recent developments in the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of Fasciola infection. Curr Opin Infect Dis 31:409–414. https://doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000482
World Health Organization (WHO) (2018) Foodborne trematode infections. Human fascioliasis: review provides fresh perspectives on infection and control. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. https://www.who.int/neglected_diseases/news/fascioliasis-review-provides-new-perspectives-infection-control/en/. Accessed 12 June 2020
World Health Organization (WHO) (2020) Foodborne trematodiases. Fascioliasis. Geneva, Switzerland. https://www.who.int/foodborne_trematode_infections/fascioliasis/en/. Accessed 12 June 2020
This work was partially funded by the Universidad de Carabobo (Grant number DIPISA-PG-2017-004).
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interest.
Ethics Approval and Consent to Participate
The project was approved by the Committee of Bioethics of the Institute of Biomedical Researches of the University of Carabobo (BIOMED-UC), following the guidelines for humans and animals care by the Commission of Bioethics of the Ministry of Science and Technology and the “Operational Guidelines for Ethics Committees that Review Biomedical Research” (TDR/PRD/ETHICS/2000.1). For to obtain blood and stool samples from human and animals, the participating and the animal’s owners signed an informed consent and the samples were obtained according to the ethical rules. In the case of underage participants, a written consent for participation was requested and signed by the parents or legally authorized representatives.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Corrales, Y., Ferrer, E., Fernández, J. et al. Diagnosis and Risk Factors of Bovine and Human Fascioliasis in Cattle Farms from a Venezuelan Andean Rural Area. Acta Parasit. (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11686-021-00341-3
- Fasciola hepatica
- Risk factors