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Calorie restriction and its impact on gut microbial composition and global metabolism

  • Xiaojiao Zheng
  • Shouli Wang
  • Wei Jia
Open Access
Review

Abstract

Calorie restriction (CR) is a dietary regimen that reduces calorie intake without incurring malnutrition or a reduction in essential nutrients. It has long been recognized as a natural strategy for promoting health, extending longevity, and prevents the development of metabolic and age-related diseases. In the present review, we focus on the general effect of CR on gut microbiota composition and global metabolism. We also propose mechanisms for its beneficial effect. Results showed that probiotic and butyrate-producing microbes increased their relative abundance, whereas proinflammatory strains exhibited suppressed relative abundance following CR. Analyses of the gut microbial and host metabolisms revealed that most host microbial co-metabolites were changed due to CR. Examples of dramatic CR-induced changes in host metabolism included a decrease in the rate of lipid biosynthesis and an increase in the rates of fatty acid catabolism, β-oxidation, glycogenolysis, and gluconeogenesis. The observed phenotypes and the further verification of the direct link between gut microbiota and metabolome may benefit patients that are at risk for developing metabolic disease. Thus, improved gut microbiota composition and metabolome are potential biomarkers for determining the effectiveness of dietary interventions for age-related and metabolic diseases.

Keywords

caloric restriction gut microbiota metabolome 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31500954).

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© The Author(s) 2018

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the appropriate credit is given to the original author(s) and the source, and a link is provided to the Creative Commons license, which indicates if changes are made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Shanghai Key Laboratory of Diabetes Mellitus and Center for Translational MedicineShanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s HospitalShanghaiChina
  2. 2.University of Hawaii Cancer CenterHonoluluUSA

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