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Lung transplantation for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

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Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality with limited treatment options. Lung transplantation (LTX) has been rarely reported as a treatment option for selected HSCT recipients with this problem. In the present study, we reported six patients who underwent LTX due to BOS after HSCT (two females, four males) from January 2012 to December 2014 in our center. The median time from HSCT to diagnosis of BOS was 2.5 years (ranging from 1 to 5 years). At a median time of 4 years (ranging from 2 to 5 years) after diagnosis of BOS, four patients received bilateral sequential LTX, and two patients received single LTX. One of the recipients suffered from mild acute rejection after LTX, another suffered from primary lung graft dysfunction on post-operation day 2, and three experienced fungal infections. The median time for follow-up after LTX was 19.5 months (ranging from 12 to 39 months). At present, all patients are alive with good functional capacity and no relapse of BOS and hematologic malignancy conditions. Patients who received bilateral LTX have better pulmonary functions than patients who received single LTX.

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Correspondence to Jingyu Chen.

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Gao, F., Chen, J., Wei, D. et al. Lung transplantation for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Front. Med. 12, 224–228 (2018).

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