Previous studies have found that the striatum and the cerebellum played important roles in nicotine dependence, respectively. In heavy smokers, however, the effect of resting-state functional connectivity of cerebellum-striatum circuits in nicotine dependence remained unknown. This study aimed to explore the role of the circuit between the striatum and the cerebellum in addiction in heavy smokers using structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging. The grey matter volume differences and the resting-state functional connectivity differences in cerebellum-striatum circuits were investigated between 23 heavy smokers and 23 healthy controls. The cigarette dependence in heavy smokers and healthy controls were evaluated by using Fagerström Test. Then, we applied mediation analysis to test whether the resting-state functional connectivity between the striatum and the cerebellum mediates the relationship between the striatum morphometry and the nicotine dependence in heavy smokers. Compared with healthy controls, the heavy smokers’ grey matter volumes decreased significantly in the cerebrum (bilateral), and increased significantly in the caudate (bilateral). Seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analysis showed significantly higher resting-state functional connectivity among the bilateral caudate, the left cerebellum, and the right middle temporal gyrus in heavy smokers. The cerebellum-striatum resting-state functional connectivity fully mediated the relationship between the striatum morphometry and the nicotine dependence in heavy smokers. Heavy smokers showed abnormal interactions and functional connectivity between the striatum and the cerebellum, which were associated with the striatum morphometry and nicotine dependence. Such findings could provide new insights into the neural correlates of nicotine dependence in heavy smokers.
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The data for this study are not publicly available because Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, the centre from which the data were collected, does not agree to make the data publicly accessible. Further inquiry about data sharing maybe directed to Prof. Bingsheng Huang, firstname.lastname@example.org.
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The authors want to thank the Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, participants who took part in the study and data collection.
This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 2016YFC1304702), National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61973220), Shenzhen University Presidential Fund (No. 85706–0000040544), Shenzhen Science and Technology Project (No. JCYJ20190808175413552), Guangdong Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation (No.2020A1515010571), Shenzhen-Hong Kong Institute of Brain Science-Shenzhen Fundamental Research Institutions (No.2019SHIBS0003), Guangdong Key Basic Research Grant (No.2018B030332001), and Guangdong Pearl River Talents Plan (No.2016ZT06S220).
Informed consent approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University was obtained from all participants.
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Zongyou Cai and Panying Wang are equal contributors, and co-first authors.
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Cai, Z., Wang, P., Liu, B. et al. To explore the mechanism of tobacco addiction using structural and functional MRI: a preliminary study of the role of the cerebellum-striatum circuit. Brain Imaging and Behavior (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11682-021-00546-0
- Nicotine dependence
- Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging
- Structural magnetic resonance imaging
- Cerebellum-striatum circuit
- Mediation analysis