Frontoinsular cortical microstructure is linked to life satisfaction in young adulthood

Abstract

Life satisfaction is a component of subjective well-being that reflects a global judgement of the quality of life according to an individual’s own needs and expectations. As a psychological construct, it has attracted attention due to its relationship to mental health, resilience to stress, and other factors. Neuroimaging studies have identified neurobiological correlates of life satisfaction; however, they are limited to functional connectivity and gray matter morphometry. We explored features of gray matter microstructure obtained through compartmental modeling of multi-shell diffusion MRI data, and we examined cortical microstructure in frontoinsular cortex in a cohort of 807 typical young adults scanned as part of the Human Connectome Project. Our experiments identified the orientation dispersion index (ODI), and analogously fractional anisotropy (FA), of frontoinsular cortex as a robust set of anatomically-specific lateralized diffusion MRI microstructure features that are linked to life satisfaction, independent of other demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral factors. We further validated our findings in a secondary test-retest dataset and found high reliability of our imaging metrics and reproducibility of outcomes. In our analysis of twin and non-twin siblings, we found basic microstructure in frontoinsular cortex to be strongly genetically determined. We also found a more moderate but still very significant genetic role in determining microstructure as it relates to life satisfaction in frontoinsular cortex. Our findings suggest a potential linkage between well-being and microscopic features of frontoinsular cortex, which may reflect cellular morphology and architecture and may more broadly implicate the integrity of the homeostatic processing performed by frontoinsular cortex as an important component of an individual’s judgements of life satisfaction.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

Availability of data and material

Data used in our study is available with permission from the Human Connectome Project Footnote 2. Our data image analysis and visualization tools available online as part of the Quantitative Imaging Toolkit (QIT) Footnote 3Footnote 4.

Notes

  1. 1.

    https://www.healthmeasures.net/explore-measurement-systems/nih-toolbox/intro-to-nih-toolbox/emotion

  2. 2.

    https://www.humanconnectome.org/study/hcp-young-adult/data-releases

  3. 3.

    https://cabeen.io/qitwiki

  4. 4.

    https://resource.loni.usc.edu/resources/downloads/

References

  1. Abdellaoui, A., de Moor, M.H., Geels, L.M., Van Beek, J.H., Willemsen, G., & D. I. Boomsma. (2012). Thought problems from adolescence to adulthood: measurement invariance and longitudinal heritability. Behavior Genetics, 42(1), 19–29.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  2. Achenbach, T.M., & Rescorla, L. (2003). Manual for the ASEBA adult forms & profiles.

  3. Alexander, D.C., Dyrby, T.B., Nilsson, M., & Zhang, H. (2019). Imaging brain microstructure with diffusion mri: practicality and applications. NMR in Biomedicine, 32(4), e3841.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  4. Allman, J.M., Tetreault, N.A., Hakeem, A.Y., Manaye, K.F., Semendeferi, K., Erwin, J.M., Park, S., Goubert, V., & Hof, P.R. (2010). The von Economo neurons in frontoinsular and anterior cingulate cortex in great apes and humans. Brain Structure and Function, 214(5-6), 495–517.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  5. Avants, B.B., Epstein, C.L., Grossman, M., & Gee, J.C. (2008). Symmetric diffeomorphic image registration with cross-correlation: evaluating automated labeling of elderly and neurodegenerative brain. Medical Image Analysis, 12(1), 26–41.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  6. Bartels, M. (2015). Genetics of wellbeing and its components satisfaction with life, happiness, and quality of life: A review and meta-analysis of heritability studies. Behavior Genetics, 45(2), 137–156.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Basser, P.J., & Jones, D.K. (2002). Diffusion-tensor MRI: theory, experimental design and data analysis–a technical review. NMR in Biomedicine: An International Journal Devoted to the Development and Application of Magnetic Resonance In Vivo, 15(7-8), 456–467.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Baxi, M., Di Biase, M.A., Lyall, A.E., Cetin-Karayumak, S., Seitz, J., Ning, L., Makris, N., Rosene, D., Kubicki, M., & Rathi, Y. (2020). Quantifying genetic and environmental influence on gray matter microstructure using diffusion mri. Cerebral Cortex.

  9. Broad, R.J., Gabel, M.C., Dowell, N.G., Schwartzman, D.J., Seth, A.K., Zhang, H., Alexander, D.C., Cercignani, M., & Leigh, P.N. (2019). Neurite orientation and dispersion density imaging (noddi) detects cortical and corticospinal tract degeneration in als. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 90 (4), 404–411.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Cabeen, R.P, Laidlaw, D.H, & Toga, A.W. (2018). Quantitative Imaging Toolkit: Software for Interactive 3D Visualization, Data Exploration, and Computational Analysis of Neuroimaging Datasets. In Proc International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM), Vol. 2018:2854.

  11. Cabeen, R., Sepehrband, F., & Toga, A. (2019). Rapid and Accurate NODDI Parameter Estimation with the Spherical Mean Technique. In Proc International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM), (Vol. 2019 p. 3363).

  12. Cabeen, R.P., Allman, J.M., & Toga, A.W. (2020). THC exposure is reflected in the microstructure of the cerebral cortex and amygdala of young adults. Cerebral cortex.

  13. Caron, B., Bullock, D., Kitchell, L., McPherson, B.C., Kellar, D.A., Cheng, H., Newman, S.D., Port, N.L., & Pestilli, F. (2020). Human white matter microstructure predicts elite sports participation.

  14. Clark, D.L., Boutros, N.N., & Mendez, M.F. (2010). The Brain and Behavior: An Introduction to Behavioral Neuroanatomy, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

  15. Craig, A. (2009). How do you feel–now? the anterior insula and human awareness. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10(1), 59–70.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  16. Craig, A. (2011). Significance of the insula for the evolution of human awareness of feelings from the body. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1225(1), 72–82.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  17. Critchley, H.D. (2005). Neural mechanisms of autonomic, affective, and cognitive integration. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 493(1), 154–166.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Diener, E. (2009). Subjective well-being. In The science of well-being (pp. 11–58): Springer.

  19. Diener, E., & Seligman, M.E. (2004). Beyond money: toward an economy of well-being. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 5(1), 1–31.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  20. Diener, E., Emmons, R.A., Larsen, R.J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale, (Vol. 49 . https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13. PMID: 16367493.

  21. Dinov, I., Van Horn, J., Lozev, K., Magsipoc, R., Petrosyan, P., Liu, Z., MacKenzie-Graha, A., Eggert, P., Parker, D.S., & Toga, A.W. (2009). Efficient, distributed and interactive neuroimaging data analysis using the loni pipeline. Frontiers in Neuroinformatics, 3, 22.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Fischl, B. (2012). Freesurfer. NeuroImage, 62(2), 774–781.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Fujita, F., & Diener, E. (2005). Life satisfaction set point: stability and change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88(1), 158.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  24. Fukutomi, H., Glasser, M.F., Zhang, H., Autio, J.A., Coalson, T.S., Okada, T., Togashi, K., Van Essen, D.C., & Hayashi, T. (2018). Neurite imaging reveals microstructural variations in human cerebral cortical gray matter. Neuroimage, 182, 488– 499.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Gefen, T., Papastefan, S.T., Rezvanian, A., Bigio, E.H., Weintraub, S., Rogalski, E., Mesulam, M.-M., & Geula, C. (2018). Von economo neurons of the anterior cingulate across the lifespan and in alzheimer’s disease. Cortex, 99, 69–77.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  26. Genç, E., Fraenz, C., Schlüter, C., Friedrich, P., Hossiep, R., Voelkle, M.C., Ling, J.M., Güntürkün, O., & Jung, R.E. (2018). Diffusion markers of dendritic density and arborization in gray matter predict differences in intelligence. Nature Communications, 9(1), 1–11.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Glasser, M.F., Sotiropoulos, S.N., Wilson, J.A., Coalson, T.S., Fischl, B., Andersson, J.L., Xu, J., Jbabdi, S., Webster, M., Polimeni, J.R., & et al. (2013). The minimal preprocessing pipelines for the human connectome project. Neuroimage, 80, 105–124.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Glasser, M.F., Coalson, T.S., Robinson, E.C., Hacker, C.D., Harwell, J., Yacoub, E., Ugurbil, K., Andersson, J., Beckmann, C.F., Jenkinson, M., & et al. (2016). A multi-modal parcellation of human cerebral cortex. Nature, 536(7615), 171.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Gong, T., Tong, Q., He, H., Sun, Y., Zhong, J., & Zhang, H. (2020). Mte-noddi: Multi-te noddi for disentangling non-t2-weighted signal fractions from compartment-specific t2 relaxation times. NeuroImage, 217, 116906.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  30. Goubran, M., Leuze, C., Hsueh, B., Aswendt, M., Ye, L., Tian, Q., Cheng, M.Y., Crow, A., Steinberg, G.K., McNab, J.A., & et al. (2019). Multimodal image registration and connectivity analysis for integration of connectomic data from microscopy to mri. Nature Communications, 10(1), 1–17.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. Gu, X., Hof, P.R., Friston, K.J., & Fan, J. (2013). Anterior insular cortex and emotional awareness. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 521(15), 3371–3388.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Guerrero, J.M., Adluru, N., Bendlin, B.B., Goldsmith, H.H., Schaefer, S.M., Davidson, R.J., Kecskemeti, S.R., Zhang, H., & Alexander, A.L. (2019). Optimizing the intrinsic parallel diffusivity in noddi: An extensive empirical evaluation. PloS one, 14(9), e0217118.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Hagslätt, H., Nilsson, M., Hansson, H., Lätt, J., & van Westen, D. (2010).

  34. Hlavac, M. (2013). Stargazer: Latex code and ascii text for well-formatted regression and summary statistics tables. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=stargazer.

  35. Hoy, A.R., Koay, C.G., Kecskemeti, S.R., & Alexander, A.L. (2014). Optimization of a free water elimination two-compartment model for diffusion tensor imaging. Neuroimage, 103, 323–333.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Jenkinson, M., Beckmann, C.F., Behrens, T.E., Woolrich, M.W., & Smith, S.M. (2012). FSL. Neuroimage, 62(2), 782–790.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  37. Kim, E.-J., Sidhu, M., Gaus, S.E., Huang, E.J., Hof, P.R., Miller, B.L., DeArmond, S.J., & Seeley, W.W. (2012). Selective frontoinsular von economo neuron and fork cell loss in early behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia. Cerebral Cortex, 22(2), 251–259.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  38. Kim, E.J., Kyeong, S., Cho, S.W., Chun, J.-W., Park, H.-J., Kim, J., Kim, J., Dolan, R.J., & Kim, J.-J. (2016). Happier people show greater neural connectivity during negative self-referential processing. PloS one, 11(2), e0149554.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. Kong, F., & You, X. (2013). Loneliness and self-esteem as mediators between social support and life satisfaction in late adolescence. Social Indicators Research, 110(1), 271–279.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Kong, F., Ding, K., Yang, Z., Dang, X., Hu, S., Song, Y., & Liu, J. (2015a). Examining gray matter structures associated with individual differences in global life satisfaction in a large sample of young adults. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 10(7), 952–960.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  41. Kong, F., Hu, S., Wang, X., Song, Y., & Liu, J. (2015b). Neural correlates of the happy life: the amplitude of spontaneous low frequency fluctuations predicts subjective well-being. Neuroimage, 107, 136–145.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  42. Kong, F., Liu, L., Wang, X., Hu, S., Song, Y., & Liu, J. (2015c). Different neural pathways linking personality traits and eudaimonic well-being: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 15(2), 299–309.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Kong, F., Wang, X., Hu, S., & Liu, J. (2015d). Neural correlates of psychological resilience and their relation to life satisfaction in a sample of healthy young adults. NeuroImage, 123, 165–172.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  44. Kubiszewski, I., Zakariyya, N., Costanza, R., & Jarvis, D. (2020). Resilience of self-reported life satisfaction: A case study of who conforms to set-point theory in australia. PloS one, 15(8), e0237161.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Kyeong, S., Kim, J., Kim, J., Kim, E.J., Kim, H.E., & Kim, J.-J. (2020). Differences in the modulation of functional connectivity by self-talk tasks between people with low and high life satisfaction. NeuroImage, 11(2), 116929.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Lewis, G.J., Kanai, R., Rees, G., & Bates, T.C. (2014). Neural correlates of the ’good life’: eudaimonic well-being is associated with insular cortex volume. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 9(5), 615–618.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  47. Li, R., Zhu, X., Zheng, Z., Wang, P., & Li, J. (2020). Subjective well-being is associated with the functional connectivity network of the dorsal anterior insula. Neuropsychologia, 141, 107393.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  48. Lydon-Staley, D., Kuehner, C., Zamoscik, V., Huffziger, S., Kirsch, P., & Bassett, D. (2019). Repetitive negative thinking in daily life and functional connectivity among default mode, fronto-parietal, and salience networks. Translational Psychiatry, 9(1), 1–12.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Lykken, D., & Tellegen, A. (1996). Happiness is a stochastic phenomenon. Psychological Science, 7(3), 186–189.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Machado, L., & Cantilino, A. (2017). Neural correlates of wellbeing scales Preliminary data. The Australian and New Zealand journal of Psychiatry, 51(9), 946.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  51. Mahmoud, J.S.R., Staten, R., Hall, L.A., & Lennie, T.A. (2012). The relationship among young adult college students’ depression, anxiety, stress, demographics, life satisfaction, and coping styles. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 33(3), 149–156.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  52. Melin, R., Fugl-Meyer, K.S., & Fugl-Meyer, A.R. (2003). Life satisfaction in 18-to 64-year-old swedes: in relation to education, employment situation, health and physical activity. Journal of rehabilitation medicine, 35(2), 84–90.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  53. Nazeri, A., Schifani, C., Anderson, J.A., Ameis, S.H., & Voineskos, A.N. (2020). In vivo imaging of gray matter microstructure in major psychiatric disorders: Opportunities for clinical translation. Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging,.

  54. Nieuwenhuys, R. (2012). The insular cortex: a review. In Progress in Brain Research, (Vol. 195 pp. 123–163): Elsevier.

  55. Nimchinsky, E.A., Gilissen, E., Allman, J.M., Perl, D.P., Erwin, J.M., & Hof, P.R. (1999). A neuronal morphologic type unique to humans and great apes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 96(9), 5268–5273.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Ourry, V., Gonneaud, J., Landeau, B., Moulinet, I., Touron, E., Dautricourt, S., Le Du, G., Mézenge, F., André, C., Bejanin, A., & et al. (2021). Association of quality of life with structural, functional and molecular brain imaging in community-dwelling older adults. NeuroImage, 231, 117819.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  57. Pauli, W.M., Nili, A.N., & Tyszka, J.M. (2018). A high-resolution probabilistic in vivo atlas of human subcortical brain nuclei. Scientific Data, 180063, 5.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (2009). Review of the satisfaction with life scale, Springer.

  59. Peterson, C., Park, N., & Seligman, M.E. (2005). Orientations to happiness and life satisfaction: The full life versus the empty life. Journal of Happiness Studies, 6(1), 25–41.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 141–166.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  61. Ryff, C.D., Singer, B.H., & Dienberg Love, G. (2004). Positive health: connecting well–being with biology. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 359(1449), 1383–1394.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  62. Salsman, J.M., Butt, Z., Pilkonis, P.A., Cyranowski, J.M., Zill, N., Hendrie, H.C., Kupst, M.J., Kelly, M.A., Bode, R.K., Choi, S.W., & et al. (2013). Emotion assessment using the nih toolbox. Neurology, 80(11 Supplement 3), S76–S86.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Salsman, J.M., Lai, J.-S., Hendrie, H.C., Butt, Z., Zill, N., Pilkonis, P.A., Peterson, C., Stoney, C.M., Brouwers, P., & Cella, D. (2014). Assessing psychological well-being: self-report instruments for the nih toolbox. Quality of Life Research, 23(1), 205–215.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  64. Samman, E. (2007). Psychological and subjective well-being: A proposal for internationally comparable indicators. Oxford Development Studies, 35(4), 459–486.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Sato, W., Kochiyama, T., Uono, S., Kubota, Y., Sawada, R., Yoshimura, S., & Toichi, M. (2015). The structural neural substrate of subjective happiness. Scientific Reports, 5(1), 16891.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Schmitz, J., Fraenz, C., Schlüter, C., Friedrich, P., Jung, R.E., Güntürkün, O., Genç, E., & Ocklenburg, S. (2019). Hemispheric asymmetries in cortical gray matter microstructure identified by neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging. Neuroimage, 189, 667–675.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  67. Seeley, W.W., Carlin, D.A., Allman, J.M., Macedo, M.N., Bush, C., Miller, B.L., & DeArmond, S.J. (2006). Early frontotemporal dementia targets neurons unique to apes and humans. Annals of Neurology: Official Journal of the American Neurological Association and the Child Neurology Society, 60(6), 660–667.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Seeley, W.W., Menon, V., Schatzberg, A.F., Keller, J., Glover, G.H., Kenna, H., Reiss, A.L., & Greicius, M.D. (2007). Dissociable intrinsic connectivity networks for salience processing and executive control. Journal of Neuroscience, 27(9), 2349–2356.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  69. Seeley, W.W., Merkle, F.T., Gaus, S.E., Craig, A., Allman, J.M., Hof, P.R., & Economo, C. (2011). Distinctive neurons of the anterior cingulate and frontoinsular cortex: a historical perspective. Cereb. Cortex, 22(2), 245–250.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  70. Sepehrband, F., Cabeen, R.P., Choupan, J., Barisano, G., Law, M., Toga, A.W., Initiative, A.D.N., & et al. (2019). Perivascular space fluid contributes to diffusion tensor imaging changes in white matter. Neuroimage, 197, 243–254.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Shin, D.C., & Johnson, D.M. (1978). Avowed happiness as an overall assessment of the quality of life. Social indicators research, 5(1-4), 475–492.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Sotiropoulos, S.N., Jbabdi, S., Xu, J., Andersson, J.L., Moeller, S., Auerbach, E.J., Glasser, M.F., Hernandez, M., Sapiro, G., Jenkinson, M., & et al. (2013). Advances in diffusion MRI acquisition and processing in the Human Connectome Project. Neuroimage, 80, 125–143.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Tanzer, J.R., & Weyandt, L. (2019). Imaging happiness: Meta analysis and review. Journal of Happiness Studies, 21, 2693–2734.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Torso, M., Bozzali, M., Zamboni, G., Jenkinson, M., Chance, S.A., & Alzheimers Disease Neuroimage Initiative. (2021). Detection of Alzheimer’s Disease using cortical diffusion tensor imaging. Human Brain Mapping, 42(4), 967–977.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  75. Tyszka, J.M., & Pauli, W.M. (2016). In vivo delineation of subdivisions of the human amygdaloid complex in a high-resolution group template. Human Brain Mapping, 37(11), 3979–3998.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Ullsperger, M., Harsay, H.A., Wessel, J.R., & Ridderinkhof, K.R. (2010). Conscious perception of errors and its relation to the anterior insula. Brain Structure and Function, 214(5), 629–643.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  77. Van Essen, D.C., Smith, S.M., Barch, D.M., Behrens, T.E., Yacoub, E., Ugurbil, K., Consortium, W.-M.H.C., & et al. (2013). The WU-Minn human connectome project: an overview. NeuroImage, 80, 62–79.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Van’t Ent, D., den Braber, A., Baselmans, B.M.L., Brouwer, R.M., Dolan, C.V., Hulshoff Pol, H.E., de Geus, E.J.C., & Bartels, M. (2017). Associations between subjective well-being and subcortical brain volumes. Scientific reports, 7(1), 6957.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  79. Watson, K.K., Jones, T.K., & Allman, J.M. (2006). Dendritic architecture of the von Economo neurons. Neuroscience, 141(3), 1107– 1112.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  80. Watson, K.K., Matthews, B.J., & Allman, J.M. (2007). Brain activation during sight gags and language-dependent humor. Cerebral Cortex, 17(2), 314–324.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  81. Westin, C.-F., Knutsson, H., Pasternak, O., Szczepankiewicz, F., Özarslan, E., van Westen, D., Mattisson, C., Bogren, M., O’Donnell, L.J., Kubicki, M., & et al. (2016). Q-space trajectory imaging for multidimensional diffusion mri of the human brain. Neuroimage, 135, 345–362.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Wickham, H. (2017). The tidyverse. R package ver., 1(1), 1.

    Google Scholar 

  83. Yi, S.Y., Barnett, B.R., Torres-Velázquez, M., Zhang, Y., Hurley, S.A., Rowley, P.A., Hernando, D., & Yu, J. -P. J. (2019). Detecting microglial density with quantitative multi-compartment diffusion mri. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 13, 81.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Zhang, H., Yushkevich, P.A., Alexander, D.C., & Gee, J.C. (2006). Deformable registration of diffusion tensor mr images with explicit orientation optimization. Medical Image Analysis, 10(5), 764–785.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  85. Zhang, H., Avants, B.B., Yushkevich, P.A., Woo, J.H., Wang, S., McCluskey, L.F., Elman, L.B., Melhem, E.R., & Gee, J.C. (2007). High-dimensional spatial normalization of diffusion tensor images improves the detection of white matter differences: an example study using amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 26(11), 1585–1597.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  86. Zhang, H., Schneider, T., Wheeler-Kingshott, C.A., & Alexander, D.C. (2012). Noddi: practical in vivo neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging of the human brain. Neuroimage, 61(4), 1000–1016.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  87. Zhang, S., Peng, H., Dawe, R.J., & Arfanakis, K. (2011). Enhanced ICBM diffusion tensor template of the human brain. Neuroimage, 54(2), 974–984.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  88. Zhu, X., Wang, K., Chen, L., Cao, A., Chen, Q., Li, J., & Qiu, J. (2018). Together Means More Happiness Relationship Status Moderates the Association between Brain Structure and Life Satisfaction. Neuroscience, 384, 406–416.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

This work was supported by National Institutes of Health (grant number P41EB015922) and made possible in part by grant number 2020-225670 from the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative DAF, an advised fund of Silicon Valley Community Foundation. Data were provided in part by the Human Connectome Project, WU-Minn Consortium (Principal Investigators: David Van Essen and Kamil Ugurbil; 1U54MH091657) funded by the 16 NIH Institutes and Centers that support the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research; and by the McDonnell Center for Systems Neuroscience at Washington University.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ryan P. Cabeen.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval

This project received approval from the University of Southern California Institutional Review Board and approval from the Human Connectome Project for Restricted Access from ConnectomeDB.

Consent to participate

Written informed consent was obtained from all individual participants as part of the conduct of the Human Connectome Project.

Conflict of Interests

The authors have no conflict of interest to report.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

(PDF 6.52 MB)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Cabeen, R.P., Toga, A.W. & Allman, J.M. Frontoinsular cortical microstructure is linked to life satisfaction in young adulthood. Brain Imaging and Behavior (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11682-021-00467-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Subjective well-being
  • Diffusion microstructure
  • Frontoinsular cortex
  • Young adulthood
  • Von economo neurons