Skip to main content

A decade of changes in brain volume and cognition

Abstract

Brain atrophy can occur several decades prior to onset of cognitive impairments. However, few longitudinal studies have examined the relationship between brain volume changes and cognition over a long follow-up period in healthy elderly women. In the present study we investigate the relationship between whole brain and hippocampal atrophy rates and longitudinal changes in cognition, including verbal episodic memory and executive function, in older women. We also examine whether baseline brain volume predicts subsequent changes in cognitive performance over a 10-year period. A total of 60 individuals from the population-based Women’s Healthy Ageing Project with a mean age at baseline of 59 years underwent 3T MRI. Of these, 40 women completed follow-up cognitive assessments, 23 of whom had follow-up MRI scans. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between brain atrophy and changes in verbal episodic memory and executive function over a 10-year period. The results show that baseline measurements of frontal and temporal grey matter volumes predict changes in verbal episodic memory performance, whereas hippocampal volume at baseline is associated with changes in executive function performance over a 10-year period of follow-ups. In addition, higher whole brain and hippocampal atrophy rates are correlated with a decline in verbal episodic memory. These findings indicate that in addition to atrophy rate, smaller regional grey matter volumes even 10 years prior is associated with increased rates of cognitive decline. This study suggests useful neuroimaging biomarkers for the prediction of cognitive decline in healthy elderly women.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Apostolova, L. G., Green, A. E., Babakchanian, S., Hwang, K. S., Chou, Y.-Y., Toga, A. W., & Thompson, P. M. (2012). Hippocampal atrophy and ventricular enlargement in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 26(1), 17–27.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Archer, H., Kennedy, J., Barnes, J., Pepple, T., Boyes, R., Randlesome, K., Clegg, S., Leung, K., Ourselin, S., & Frost, C. (2010). Memory complaints and increased rates of brain atrophy: risk factors for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 25(11), 1119–1126.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Bourisly, A. K., El-Beltagi, A., Cherian, J., Gejo, G., Al-Jazzaf, A., & Ismail, M. (2015). A voxel-based morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain detects age-related gray matter volume changes in healthy subjects of 21–45 years old. The Neuroradiology Journal, 28(5), 450–459.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Burgess, N., Maguire, E. A., & O’Keefe, J. (2002). The human hippocampus and spatial and episodic memory. Neuron, 35(4), 625–641.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Burgmans, S., Van Boxtel, M., Smeets, F., Vuurman, E., Gronenschild, E., Verhey, F., Uylings, H., & Jolles, J. (2009). Prefrontal cortex atrophy predicts dementia over a six-year period. Neurobiology of Aging, 30(9), 1413–1419.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Cardenas, V., Chao, L., Studholme, C., Yaffe, K., Miller, B., Madison, C., Buckley, S., Mungas, D., Schuff, N., & Weiner, M. (2011). Brain atrophy associated with baseline and longitudinal measures of cognition. Neurobiology of Aging, 32(4), 572–580.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Carlson, M. C., Xue, Q.-L., Zhou, J., & Fried, L. P. (2009). Executive decline and dysfunction precedes declines in memory: the women’s health and aging study II. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 64(1), 110–117.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Carmichael, O., Mungas, D., Beckett, L., Harvey, D., Farias, S. T., Reed, B., Olichney, J., Miller, J., & DeCarli, C. (2012). MRI predictors of cognitive change in a diverse and carefully characterized elderly population. Neurobiology of Aging, 33(1), 83–95.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Cherbuin, N., Anstey, K. J., Réglade-Meslin, C., & Sachdev, P. S. (2009). In vivo hippocampal measurement and memory: a comparison of manual tracing and automated segmentation in a large community-based sample. PLoS One, 4(4), e5265.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Clark, M. S., Dennerstein, L., Elkadi, S., Guthrie, J. R., Bowden, S. C., & Henderson, V. W. (2004a). Normative data for tasks of executive function and working memory for Australian-born women aged 56–67. Australian Psychologist, 39(3), 244–250.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Clark, M. S., Dennerstein, L., Elkadi, S., Guthrie, J. R., Bowden, S. C., & Henderson, V. W. (2004b). Normative verbal and non-verbal memory test scores for Australian women aged 56–67. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 38(7), 532–540.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Cover, K. S., van Schijndel, R. A., van Dijk, B. W., Redolfi, A., Knol, D. L., Frisoni, G. B., Barkhof, F., Vrenken, H., & Initiative, A.s.D.N. (2011). Assessing the reproducibility of the SienaX and Siena brain atrophy measures using the ADNI back-to-back MP-RAGE MRI scans. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 193(3), 182–190.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Crivello, F., Tzourio-Mazoyer, N., Tzourio, C., & Mazoyer, B. (2014). Longitudinal assessment of global and regional rate of grey matter atrophy in 1,172 healthy older adults: modulation by sex and age. PLoS One, 9(12), e114478.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Davatzikos, C., & Bryan, R. N. (1996). Using a deformable surface model to obtain a shape representation of the cortex. Medical Imaging, IEEE Transactions on, 15(6), 785–795.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Delis, D. C., Kramer, J. H., Kaplan, E., & Ober, B. A. (1987). CVLT, California verbal learning test: adult version: manual. San Antonio: Psychological Corporation.

    Google Scholar 

  16. den Heijer, T., van der Lijn, F., Koudstaal, P. J., Hofman, A., van der Lugt, A., Krestin, G. P., Niessen, W. J., & Breteler, M. M. (2010). A 10-year follow-up of hippocampal volume on magnetic resonance imaging in early dementia and cognitive decline. Brain, 133(4), 1163–1172.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Desikan, R. S., Ségonne, F., Fischl, B., Quinn, B. T., Dickerson, B. C., Blacker, D., Buckner, R. L., Dale, A. M., Maguire, R. P., & Hyman, B. T. (2006). An automated labeling system for subdividing the human cerebral cortex on MRI scans into gyral based regions of interest. NeuroImage, 31(3), 968–980.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Destrieux, C., Fischl, B., Dale, A., & Halgren, E. (2010). Automatic parcellation of human cortical gyri and sulci using standard anatomical nomenclature. NeuroImage, 53(1), 1–15.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Driscoll, I., Davatzikos, C., An, Y., Wu, X., Shen, D., Kraut, M., & Resnick, S. (2009). Longitudinal pattern of regional brain volume change differentiates normal aging from MCI. Neurology, 72(22), 1906–1913.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Duarte, A., Hayasaka, S., Du, A., Schuff, N., Jahng, G.-H., Kramer, J., Miller, B., & Weiner, M. (2006). Volumetric correlates of memory and executive function in normal elderly, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Neuroscience Letters, 406(1), 60–65.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Durand-Dubief, F., Belaroussi, B., Armspach, J., Dufour, M., Roggerone, S., Vukusic, S., Hannoun, S., Sappey-Marinier, D., Confavreux, C., & Cotton, F. (2012). Reliability of longitudinal brain volume loss measurements between 2 sites in patients with multiple sclerosis: comparison of 7 quantification techniques. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 33(10), 1918–1924.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Elkadi, S., Clark, M. S., Dennerstein, L., Guthrie, J. R., Bowden, S. C., & Henderson, V. W. (2006a). Normative data for Australian midlife women on category fluencyand a short form of the Boston naming test. Australian Psychologist, 41(1), 37–42.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Elkadi, S., Clark, M. S., Dennerstein, L., Guthrie, J. R., Bowden, S. C., & Henderson, V. W. (2006b). Normative visuospatial performance in Australian midlife women. Australian Psychologist, 41(1), 43–47.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Farzan, A., Mashohor, S., Ramli, A. R., & Mahmud, R. (2015). Boosting diagnosis accuracy of Alzheimer’s disease using high dimensional recognition of longitudinal brain atrophy patterns. Behavioural Brain Research, 290, 124–130.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Fischl, B. (2012). FreeSurfer. NeuroImage, 62(2), 774–781.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Fischl, B., Sereno, M. I., & Dale, A. M. (1999). Cortical surface-based analysis: II: inflation, flattening, and a surface-based coordinate system. NeuroImage, 9(2), 195–207.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Fischl, B., van der Kouwe, A., Destrieux, C., Halgren, E., Ségonne, F., Salat, D. H., Busa, E., Seidman, L. J., Goldstein, J., & Kennedy, D. (2004). Automatically parcellating the human cerebral cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 14(1), 11–22.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Fjell, A. M., Walhovd, K. B., Fennema-Notestine, C., McEvoy, L. K., Hagler, D. J., Holland, D., Brewer, J. B., & Dale, A. M. (2009). One-year brain atrophy evident in healthy aging. The Journal of Neuroscience, 29(48), 15223–15231.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Fjell, A. M., Sneve, M. H., Storsve, A. B., Grydeland, H., Yendiki, A., & Walhovd, K. B. (2015). Brain events underlying episodic memory changes in aging: a longitudinal investigation of structural and functional connectivity. Cerebral Cortex, 26(3), 1272–1286.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Fleischman, D. A., Yu, L., Arfanakis, K., Han, S. D., Barnes, L. L., Arvanitakis, Z., Boyle, P. A., & Bennett, D. A. (2013). Faster cognitive decline in the years prior to MR imaging is associated with smaller hippocampal volumes in cognitively healthy older persons. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 5, 21.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Frisoni, G. B., Fox, N. C., Jack, C. R., Scheltens, P., & Thompson, P. M. (2010). The clinical use of structural MRI in Alzheimer disease. Nature Reviews Neurology, 6(2), 67–77.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Guo, J., Isohanni, M., Miettunen, J., Jääskeläinen, E., Kiviniemi, V., Nikkinen, J., Remes, J., Huhtaniska, S., Veijola, J., & Jones, P. (2016). Brain structural changes in women and men during midlife. Neuroscience Letters, 615, 107–112.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Hackert, V., den Heijer, T., Oudkerk, M., Koudstaal, P., Hofman, A., & Breteler, M. (2002). Hippocampal head size associated with verbal memory performance in nondemented elderly. NeuroImage, 17(3), 1365–1372.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Henneman, W., Sluimer, J., Barnes, J., Van Der Flier, W., Sluimer, I., Fox, N., Scheltens, P., Vrenken, H., & Barkhof, F. (2009). Hippocampal atrophy rates in Alzheimer disease added value over whole brain volume measures. Neurology, 72(11), 999–1007.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Hua, X., Hibar, D. P., Lee, S., Toga, A. W., Jack, C. R., Weiner, M. W., Thompson, P. M., & Initiative, A.s.D.N. (2010). Sex and age differences in atrophic rates: an ADNI study with n= 1368 MRI scans. Neurobiology of Aging, 31(8), 1463–1480.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Jack, C., Shiung, M., Weigand, S., O’Brien, P., Gunter, J., Boeve, B., Knopman, D., Smith, G., Ivnik, R., & Tangalos, E. (2005). Brain atrophy rates predict subsequent clinical conversion in normal elderly and amnestic MCI. Neurology, 65(8), 1227–1231.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Johnson, J. K., Lui, L.-Y., & Yaffe, K. (2007). Executive function, more than global cognition, predicts functional decline and mortality in elderly women. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 62(10), 1134–1141.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Johnson, K. A., Fox, N. C., Sperling, R. A., & Klunk, W. E. (2012). Brain imaging in Alzheimer disease. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine, 2(4), a006213.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. Kramer, J. H., Mungas, D., Reed, B. R., Wetzel, M. E., Burnett, M. M., Miller, B. L., Weiner, M. W., & Chui, H. C. (2007). Longitudinal MRI and cognitive change in healthy elderly. Neuropsychology, 21(4), 412–418.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Lemaitre, H., Goldman, A. L., Sambataro, F., Verchinski, B. A., Meyer-Lindenberg, A., Weinberger, D. R., & Mattay, V. S. (2012). Normal age-related brain morphometric changes: nonuniformity across cortical thickness, surface area and gray matter volume? Neurobiology of Aging, 33(3), 617. e1–617. e9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Maclaren, J., Han, Z., Vos, S. B., Fischbein, N., & Bammer, R. (2014). Reliability of brain volume measurements: a test-retest dataset. Scientific Data, 1, 140037.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Maillet, D., & Rajah, M. N. (2013). Association between prefrontal activity and volume change in prefrontal and medial temporal lobes in aging and dementia: a review. Ageing Research Reviews, 12(2), 479–489.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Mak, E., Su, L., Williams, G. B., Watson, R., Firbank, M., Blamire, A. M., & O’Brien, J. T. (2015). Longitudinal assessment of global and regional atrophy rates in Alzheimer’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. NeuroImage: Clinical, 7, 456–462.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. McDonald, C. R., Gharapetian, L., McEvoy, L. K., Fennema-Notestine, C., Hagler, D. J., Holland, D., Dale, A. M., & Initiative, A.s.D.N. (2012). Relationship between regional atrophy rates and cognitive decline in mild cognitive impairment. Neurobiology of Aging, 33(2), 242–253.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Morey, R. A., Petty, C. M., Xu, Y., Hayes, J. P., Wagner, H. R., Lewis, D. V., LaBar, K. S., Styner, M., & McCarthy, G. (2009). A comparison of automated segmentation and manual tracing for quantifying hippocampal and amygdala volumes. NeuroImage, 45(3), 855–866.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Morey, R. A., Selgrade, E. S., Wagner, H. R., Huettel, S. A., Wang, L., & McCarthy, G. (2010). Scan–rescan reliability of subcortical brain volumes derived from automated segmentation. Human Brain Mapping, 31(11), 1751–1762.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  47. Morrison, J. H., & Baxter, M. G. (2012). The ageing cortical synapse: hallmarks and implications for cognitive decline. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 13(4), 240–250.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Mungas, D., Harvey, D., Reed, B., Jagust, W., DeCarli, C., Beckett, L., Mack, W., Kramer, J., Weiner, M., & Schuff, N. (2005). Longitudinal volumetric MRI change and rate of cognitive decline. Neurology, 65(4), 565–571.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Nyberg, L., Lövdén, M., Riklund, K., Lindenberger, U., & Bäckman, L. (2012). Memory aging and brain maintenance. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16(5), 292–305.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Oosterman, J. M., Vogels, R. L., van Harten, B., Gouw, A. A., Scheltens, P., Poggesi, A., Weinstein, H. C., & Scherder, E. J. (2008). The role of white matter hyperintensities and medial temporal lobe atrophy in age-related executive dysfunctioning. Brain and Cognition, 68(2), 128–133.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Papp, K. V., Kaplan, R. F., Springate, B., Moscufo, N., Wakefield, D. B., Guttmann, C. R., & Wolfson, L. (2014). Processing speed in normal aging: effects of white matter hyperintensities and hippocampal volume loss. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 21(2), 197–213.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Persson, J., Pudas, S., Lind, J., Kauppi, K., Nilsson, L.-G., & Nyberg, L. (2012). Longitudinal structure–function correlates in elderly reveal MTL dysfunction with cognitive decline. Cerebral Cortex, 22(10), 2297–2304.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Raz, N., Lindenberger, U., Rodrigue, K. M., Kennedy, K. M., Head, D., Williamson, A., Dahle, C., Gerstorf, D., & Acker, J. D. (2005). Regional brain changes in aging healthy adults: general trends, individual differences and modifiers. Cerebral Cortex, 15(11), 1676–1689.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Rémy, F., Mirrashed, F., Campbell, B., & Richter, W. (2005). Verbal episodic memory impairment in Alzheimer’s disease: a combined structural and functional MRI study. NeuroImage, 25(1), 253–266.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Resnick, S. M., Pham, D. L., Kraut, M. A., Zonderman, A. B., & Davatzikos, C. (2003). Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging studies of older adults: a shrinking brain. Society for Neuroscience, 23(8), 3295–3301.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  56. Reuter, M., Schmansky, N. J., Rosas, H. D., & Fischl, B. (2012). Within-subject template estimation for unbiased longitudinal image analysis. NeuroImage, 61(4), 1402–1418.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Rusinek, H., De Santi, S., Frid, D., Tsui, W.-H., Tarshish, C. Y., Convit, A., & de Leon, M. J. (2003). Regional brain atrophy rate predicts future cognitive decline: 6-year longitudinal MR imaging study of normal aging 1. Radiology, 229(3), 691–696.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Schmidt, R., Ropele, S., Enzinger, C., Petrovic, K., Smith, S., Schmidt, H., Matthews, P. M., & Fazekas, F. (2005). White matter lesion progression, brain atrophy, and cognitive decline: the Austrian stroke prevention study. Annals of Neurology, 58(4), 610–616.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Sluimer, J. D., van der Flier, W. M., Karas, G. B., Fox, N. C., Scheltens, P., Barkhof, F., & Vrenken, H. (2008). Whole-brain atrophy rate and cognitive decline: longitudinal MR study of memory clinic patients 1. Radiology, 248(2), 590–598.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Smith, S. M., Zhang, Y., Jenkinson, M., Chen, J., Matthews, P., Federico, A., & De Stefano, N. (2002). Accurate, robust, and automated longitudinal and cross-sectional brain change analysis. NeuroImage, 17(1), 479–489.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Smith, S. M., Rao, A., De Stefano, N., Jenkinson, M., Schott, J. M., Matthews, P. M., & Fox, N. C. (2007). Longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis of atrophy in Alzheimer’s disease: cross-validation of BSI, SIENA and SIENAX. NeuroImage, 36(4), 1200–1206.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Söderlund, H., Nyberg, L., & Nilsson, L. G. (2004). Cerebral atrophy as predictor of cognitive function in old, community-dwelling individuals. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 109(6), 398–406.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Szoeke, C. E. I., Robertson, J. S., Rowe, C. C., Yates, P., Campbell, K., Masters, C. L., Ames, D., Dennerstein, L., & Desmond, P. (2013). The women’s healthy ageing project: fertile ground for investigation of healthy participants ‘at risk’ for dementia. International Review of Psychiatry, 25(6), 726–737.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Szoeke, C., Coulson, M., Campbell, S., & Dennerstein, L. (2016). Cohort profile: women’s healthy ageing project (WHAP)-a longitudinal prospective study of Australian women since 1990. Women’s Midlife Health, 2(1), 5.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Takao, H., Hayashi, N., & Ohtomo, K. (2011). Effect of scanner in longitudinal studies of brain volume changes. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 34(2), 438–444.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Takao, H., Hayashi, N., & Ohtomo, K. (2012). A longitudinal study of brain volume changes in normal aging. European Journal of Radiology, 81(10), 2801–2804.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Tisserand, D. J., Van Boxtel, M. P., Pruessner, J. C., Hofman, P., Evans, A. C., & Jolles, J. (2004). A voxel-based morphometric study to determine individual differences in gray matter density associated with age and cognitive change over time. Cerebral Cortex, 14(9), 966–973.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Tupler, L. A., Krishnan, K. R. R., Greenberg, D. L., Marcovina, S. M., Payne, M. E., MacFall, J. R., Charles, H. C., & Doraiswamy, P. M. (2007). Predicting memory decline in normal elderly: genetics, MRI, and cognitive reserve. Neurobiology of Aging, 28(11), 1644–1656.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Van Petten, C. (2004). Relationship between hippocampal volume and memory ability in healthy individuals across the lifespan: review and meta-analysis. Neuropsychologia, 42(10), 1394–1413.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Van Petten, C., Plante, E., Davidson, P. S., Kuo, T. Y., Bajuscak, L., & Glisky, E. L. (2004). Memory and executive function in older adults: relationships with temporal and prefrontal gray matter volumes and white matter hyperintensities. Neuropsychologia, 42(10), 1313–1335.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Welsh, K. A., Butters, N., Mohs, R. C., Beekly, D., Edland, S., Fillenbaum, G., & Heyman, A. (1994). The consortium to establish a registry for Alzheimer’s disease (CERAD). Part V. A normative study of the neuropsychological battery. Neurology, 44(4), 609–614.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Wenger, E., Mårtensson, J., Noack, H., Bodammer, N. C., Kühn, S., Schaefer, S., Heinze, H. J., Düzel, E., Bäckman, L., & Lindenberger, U. (2014). Comparing manual and automatic segmentation of hippocampal volumes: reliability and validity issues in younger and older brains. Human Brain Mapping, 35(8), 4236–4248.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Westman, E., Aguilar, C., Muehlboeck, J.-S., & Simmons, A. (2013). Regional magnetic resonance imaging measures for multivariate analysis in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment. Brain Topography, 26(1), 9–23.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Wilson, R. S., Li, Y., Bienias, L., & Bennett, D. A. (2006). Cognitive decline in old age: separating retest effects from the effects of growing older. Psychology and Aging, 21(4), 774–789.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Yavuz, B. B., Ariogul, S., Cankurtaran, M., Oguz, K. K., Halil, M., Dagli, N., & Cankurtaran, E. S. (2007). Hippocampal atrophy correlates with the severity of cognitive decline. International Psychogeriatrics, 19(04), 767–777.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Ystad, M. A., Lundervold, A. J., Wehling, E., Espeseth, T., Rootwelt, H., Westlye, L. T., Andersson, M., Adolfsdottir, S., Geitung, J. T., & Fjell, A. M. (2009). Hippocampal volumes are important predictors for memory function in elderly women. BioMed Central Ltd, 9, 17.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We would like to acknowledge the contribution of the participants and their supporters who have contributed their time and commitment for over 20 years to the University. A full list of all researchers contributing to the project and the membership of our Scientific Advisory Board is available at http://www.medrmhwh.unimelb.edu.au/Research/WHAP.html.

Funding

This study is funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC Grants 547500, 1032350 & 1062133), Ramaciotti Foundation, Australian Healthy Ageing Organisation, the Brain Foundation, the Alzheimer’s Association (NIA320312), Australian Menopausal Society, Bayer Healthcare, Shepherd Foundation, Scobie and Claire Mackinnon Foundation, Collier Trust Fund, J.O. & J.R. Wicking Trust, Mason Foundation and the Alzheimer’s Association of Australia. Inaugural funding was provided by VicHealth and the NHMRC. The Principal Investigator of WHAP (CSz) is supported by the National Health and Medical Research Council.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Cassandra Szoeke.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

Prof. Szoeke has provided clinical consultancy and been on scientific advisory committees for the Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Alzheimer’s Australia, University of Melbourne and other relationships which are subject to confidentiality clauses. She has been a named Chief Investigator on investigator driven collaborative research projects in partnership with Pfizer, Merck, Bayer and GE. She has been an investigator on clinical trials with Lundbeck within the last 2 years. Dr. Desmond has been supported by the Royal Melbourne Hospital and the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia. Other authors report no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Electronic supplementary material

ESM 1

(DOCX 14 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Aljondi, R., Szoeke, C., Steward, C. et al. A decade of changes in brain volume and cognition. Brain Imaging and Behavior 13, 554–563 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11682-018-9887-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Normal aging
  • Elderly women
  • Brain atrophy
  • Hippocampal atrophy
  • Episodic memory
  • Executive function