Advertisement

Brain Imaging and Behavior

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 278–292 | Cite as

Neural foundation of human moral reasoning: an ALE meta-analysis about the role of personal perspective

  • M. Boccia
  • C. Dacquino
  • L. Piccardi
  • P. Cordellieri
  • C. Guariglia
  • F. Ferlazzo
  • S. Ferracuti
  • A. M. Giannini
Review Article

Abstract

Moral sense is defined as a feeling of the rightness or wrongness of an action that knowingly causes harm to people other than the agent. The large amount of data collected over the past decade allows drawing some definite conclusions about the neurobiological foundations of moral reasoning as well as a systematic investigation of methodological variables during fMRI studies. Here, we verified the existence of converging and consistent evidence in the current literature by means of a meta-analysis of fMRI studies of moral reasoning, using activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis. We also tested for a possible neural segregation as function of the perspective used during moral reasoning i.e., first or third person perspectives. Results demonstrate the existence of a wide network of areas underpinning moral reasoning, including orbitofrontal cortex, insula, amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex as well as precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex. Within this network we found a neural segregation as a function of the personal perspective, with 1PP eliciting higher activation in the bilateral insula and superior temporal gyrus as well as in the anterior cingulate cortex, lingual and fusiform gyri, middle temporal gyrus and precentral gyrus in the left hemisphere, and 3PP eliciting higher activation in the bilateral amygdala, the posterior cingulate cortex, insula and supramarginal gyrus in the left hemisphere as well as the medial and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in the right hemisphere. These results shed some more light on the contribution of these areas to moral reasoning, strongly supporting a functional specialization as a function of the perspective used during moral reasoning.

Keywords

Moral judgment ALE meta-analysis Moral dilemmas Moral justice Moral sense First person perspective Third person perspective 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Human and animal rights and informed consent

No animal or human studies were carried out by the authors for this article and data from previous studies were collected using PubMed database.

Conflict of interest

Maddalena Boccia, Claudia Dacquino, Laura Piccardi, Pierluigi Cordellieri, Cecilia Guariglia, Fabio Ferlazzo, Stefano Ferracuti and Anna Maria Giannini declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Agerström, J., Björklund, F., & Carlsson, R. (2013). Look at yourself! Visual perspective influences moral judgment by level of mental construal. Social Psychology, 44(1), 42–46. doi: 10.1027/1864-9335/a000100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allison, T., Puce, A., & McCarty, G. (2000). Social perception from visual cues: role of the STS region. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 267–278. doi: 10.1016/S1364-6613(00)01501-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, S. W., Bechara, A., Damasio, H., Tranel, D., & Damasio, A. R. (1999). Impairment of social and moral behavior related to early damage in human prefrontal cortex. Nature Neuroscience, 1032–1037. doi: 10.1038/14833.
  4. Avram, M., Gutyrchik, E., Bao, Y., Pöppel, E., Reiser, M., & Blautzik, J. (2013). Neurofunctional correlates of esthetic and moral judgments. Neuroscience Letters, 534(1), 128–132. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2012.11.053.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Avram, M., Hennig-Fast, K., Bao, Y., Poppel, E., Reiser, M., Blautzik, J., ... Gutyrchik, E. (2014). Neural correlates of moral judgments in first- and third-person perspectives: implications for neuroethics and beyond. BMC Neuroscience, 15, 39. doi: 10.1186/1471-2202-15-39.
  6. Bahnemann, M., Dziobek, I., Prehn, K., Wolf, I., & Heekeren, H. R. (2009). Sociotopy in the temporoparietal cortex: common versus distinct processes. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 5(1), 48–58. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsp045.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Bechara, A., & Damasio, A. R. (2005). The somatic marker hypothesis: a neural theory of economic decision. Games and Economic Behaviour, 52, 336–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berthoz, S., Grèzes, J., Armony, J. L., Passingham, R. E., & Dolan, R. J. (2006). Affective response to one’s own moral violations. NeuroImage, 31(2), 945–950. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.12.039.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Buckholtz, J. W., Asplund, C. L., Dux, P. E., Zald, D. H., Gore, J. C., Jones, O. D., & Marois, R. (2008). The neural correlates of third-party punishment. Neuron, 60(5), 930–940. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2008.10.016.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bzdok, D., Schilbach, L., Vogeley, K., Schneider, K., Laird, A. R., Langner, R., & Eickhoff, S. B. (2012). Parsing the neural correlates of moral cognition: ALE meta-analysis on morality, theory of mind, and empathy. Brain Structure & Function, 217(4), 783–796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cáceda, R., James, G. A., Ely, T. D., Snarey, J., & Kilts, C. D. (2011). Mode of effective connectivity within a putative neural network differentiates moral cognitions related to care and justice ethics. PloS One, 6(2), e14730. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014730.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Cavanna, A. E., & Trimble, M. R. (2006). The precuneus: a review of its functional anatomy and behavioural correlates. Brain, 129, 564–583.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Chiong, W., Wilson, S. M., D’Esposito, M., Kayser, A. S., Grossman, S. N., Poorzand, P., Seeley, W. W., Miller, B. L., & Rankin, K. P. (2013). The salience network causally influences default mode network activity during moral reasoning. Brain, 136(6), 1929–1941. doi: 10.1093/brain/awt066.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Ciaramelli, E., Braghittoni, D., & Di Pellegrino, G. (2012). It is the outcome that counts! Damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex disrupts the integration of outcome and belief information for moral judgment. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 18, 962–971.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Cikara, M., Farnsworth, R. A., Harris, L. T., & Fiske, S. T. (2010). On the wrong side of the trolley track: neural correlates of relative social valuation. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 5(4), 404–413. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsq011.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Cushman, F., Murray, D., Gordon-mckeon, S., Wharton, S., & Greene, J. D. (2012). Judgment before principle: engagement of the frontoparietal control network in condemning harms of omission. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 7(8), 888–895. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsr072.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Damasio, H., Grabowski, T., Frank, R., Galaburda, A. M., & Damasio, A. R. (1994). The return of Phineas gage: clues about the brain from the skull of a famous patient. Science, 264, 1102–1105.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Eickhoff, S. B., Laird, A. R., Grefkes, C., Wang, L. E., Zilles, K., & Fox, P. T. (2009). Coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of neuroimaging data: a random-effects approach based on empirical estimates of spatial uncertainty. Human Brain Mapping, 30, 2907–2926.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Finger, E. C., Marsh, A. A., Kamel, N., Mitchell, D. G. V., & Blair, J. R. (2006). Caught in the act: the impact of audience on the neural response to morally and socially inappropriate behavior. NeuroImage, 33(1), 414–421.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Fox, P. T., Lancaster, J. L., Laird, A. R., & Eickhoff, S. B. (2014). Meta-analysis in human neuroimaging: computational modeling of large-scale databases. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 37, 409–434.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Fumagalli, M., & Priori, A. (2012). Functional and clinical neuroanatomy of morality. Brain, 135(Pt 7), 2006–2021. doi: 10.1093/brain/awr334.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Greene, J. D. (2009). Dual-process morality and the personal/impersonal distinction: a reply to McGuire, Langdon, Coltheart and Mackenzie. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 581–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Greene, J. (2013). Moral tribes: Emotion, reason, and the gap between us and them. New York: The Penguin Press, HC.Google Scholar
  24. Greene, J., & Haidt, J. (2002). How (and where) does moral judgment work? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6(12), 517–523.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Greene, J. D., & Paxton, J. M. (2010). Correction for Greene et al., patterns of neural activity associated with honest and dishonest moral decisions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(9), 4486–4486. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1000505107.Google Scholar
  26. Greene, J. D., Sommerville, R. B., Nystrom, L. E., Darley, J. M., & Cohen, J. D. (2001). An fMRI investigation of emotional engagement in moral judgment. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5537), 2105–2108. doi: 10.1126/science.1062872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Greene, J. D., Nystrom, L. E., Engell, A. D., Darley, J. M., & Cohen, J. D. (2004). The neural bases of cognitive conflict and control in moral judgment. Neuron, 44(2), 389–400.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Gusnard, D. A., & Raichle, M. E. (2001). Searching for a baseline: functional imaging and the resting human brain. Nature Reviews. Neuroscience, 2, 685–694.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Han, H., Glover, G. H., & Jeong, C. (2014). Cultural influences on the neural correlate of moral decision making processes. Behavioural Brain Research, 259, 215–228. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2013.11.012.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Harada, T., Itakura, S., Xu, F., Lee, K., Nakashita, S., Saito, D. N., & Sadato, N. (2009). Neural correlates of the judgment of lying: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Neuroscience Research, 63(1), 24–34. doi: 10.1016/j.neures.2008.09.010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Harenski, C. L., Harenski, K. A., Shane, M. S., & Kiehl, K. A. (2012). Neural development of mentalizing in moral judgment from adolescence to adulthood. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 2(1), 162–173. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2011.09.002.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Hayashi, A., Abe, N., Fujii, T., Ito, A., Ueno, A., Koseki, Y., & Mori, E. (2014). Dissociable neural systems for moral judgment of anti- and pro-social lying. Brain Research, 1556, 46–56. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2014.02.011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Heekeren, H. R., Wartenburger, C. A. I., Schmidt, H., Schwintowski, H., & Villringer, A. (2003). An fMRI study of simple ethical decision- making. NeuroReport, 14(9), 1215–1219.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Heekeren, H. R., Wartenburger, I., Schmidt, H., Prehn, K., Schwintowski, H. P., & Villringer, A. (2005). Influence of bodily harm on neural correlates of semantic and moral decision-making. NeuroImage, 24(3), 887–897. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.09.026.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Jackson, P. L., Meltzoff, A. N., & Decety, J. (2005). How do we perceive the pain of others? A window into the neural processes involved in empathy. NeuroImage, 24, 771–779.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Jones, E. E., & Nisbett, R. E. (1971). The actor and the observer: Divergent perceptions of the causes of behavior. New York: General Learning Press.Google Scholar
  37. Kagan, J. (1984). The nature of the child. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  38. Kahane, G., Wiech, K., Shackel, N., Farias, M., Savulescu, J., & Tracey, I. (2012). The neural basis of intuitive and counterintuitive moral judgment. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 7(4), 393–402. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsr005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Kelley, W. M., Macrae, C. N., Wyland, C. L., Caglar, S., Inati, S., & Heatherton, T. F. (2002). Finding the self? An event-related fMRI study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14, 785–794.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Kochanska, G., Aksan, N., & Koenig, A. L. (1995). A longitudinal study of the roots of preschoolers’ conscience: committed compliance and emerging internalization. Child Development, 66, 1752–1759.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Koenigs, M., Young, L., Adolphs, R., Tranel, D., Cushman, F., Hauser, M., & Damasio, A. (2007). Damage to the prefrontal cortex increases utilitarian moral judgments. Nature, 446, 908–911.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Kohlberg, L. (1964). Development of moral character and moral ideology. In M. L. Hoffman, & L. W. Hoffman (Eds.), Review of child development research. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  43. Kohlberg, L., Levine, C., & Hewer, A. (1983). Moral stages: A current formulation and a response to critics. Basel: Karger.Google Scholar
  44. Libby, L. K., Shaeffer, E. M., Eibach, R. P., & Slemmer, J. A. (2007). Picture yourself at the polls:visualperspective inmental imagery affects self-perception and behavior. Psychological Science, 18, 199–203. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01872.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Majdandžić, J., Bauer, H., Windischberger, C., Moser, E., Engl, E., & Lamm, C. (2012). The human factor: behavioral and neural correlates of humanized perception in moral decision making. PloS One, 7(10), e47698. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047698.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Manfrinati, A., Lotto, L., Sarlo, M., Palomba, D., & Rumiati, R. (2013). Moral dilemmas and moral principles: when emotion and cognition unite. Cognition and Emotion, 27, 1276–1291.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Moll, J., de Oliveira-Souza, R., Bramati, I. E., & Grafman, J. (2002). Functional networks in emotional moral and nonmoral social judgments. NeuroImage, 16(3 Pt 1), 696–703. doi: 10.1006/nimg.2002.1118.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Moll, J., Zahn, R., de Oliveira-Souza, R., Krueger, F., & Grafman, J. (2005). Opinion: the neural basis of human moral cognition. Nature Reviews. Neuroscience, 6, 799–809. doi: 10.1038/nrn1768.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Moll, J., De Oliveira-Souza, R., & Zahn, R. (2008a). The neural basis of moral cognition: sentiments, concepts, and values. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1124, 161–180. doi: 10.1196/annals.1440.005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Moll, J., Oliveira-Souza, R., Zahn, R., & Grafman, J. (2008b). The cognitive neuroscience of moral emotions. In Sinnott-Armstrong (Ed.), Moral psychology (vol. 3, pp. 1–17). Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  51. Nadelhoffer, T., & Feltz, A. (2008). The actor–observer bias and moral intuitions: adding fuel to sinnott-armstrong’s fire. Neuroethics, 1(2), 133–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Nakao, T., Ohira, H., & Northoff, G. (2012). Distinction between externally vs. internally guided decision-making: operational differences, meta-analytical comparisons and their theoretical implications. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 6(31). doi: 10.3389/fnins.2012.00031.
  53. Parkinson, C., Sinnott-Armstrong, W., Koralus, P. E., Mendelovici, A., McGeer, V., & Wheatley, T. (2011). Is morality unified? Evidence that distinct neural systems underlie moral judgments of harm, dishonesty, and disgust. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23(10), 3162–3180.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Pascual, L., Gallardo-Pujol, D., & Rodrigues, P. (2013). How does morality work in the brain? A functional and structural perspective of moral behavior. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 7(65). doi: 10.3389/fnint.2013.00065.
  55. Piaget, J. (1932). The moral judgment of the child. Brace Jovanovich: Harcourt.Google Scholar
  56. Piaget, J. (1965). The moral judgment of the child. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  57. Prehn, K., Wartenburger, I., Mériau, K., Scheibe, C., Goodenough, O. R., Villringer, A., & Heekeren, H. R. (2008). Individual differences in moral judgment competence influence neural correlates of socio-normative judgments. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 3(1), 33–46. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsm037.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Pujol, J., Batalla, I., Contreras-Rodríguez, O., Harrison, B. J., Pera, V., Hernández-Ribas, R., Real, E., Bosa, L., Soriano-Mas, C., Deus, J., López-Solà, M., Pifarré, J., Menchón, J. M., & Cardoner, N. (2012). Breakdown in the brain network subserving moral judgment in criminal psychopathy. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 7(8), 917–923. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsr075.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Reniers, R. L. E. P., Corcoran, R., Völlm, B. A., Mashru, A., Howard, R., & Liddle, P. F. (2012). Moral decision-making, ToM, empathy and the default mode network. Biological Psychology, 90(3), 202–210. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2012.03.009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Robertson, D., Snarey, J., Ousley, O., Harenski, K., Bowman, F. D., Gilkey, R., & Kilts, C. (2007). The neural processing of moral sensitivity to issues of justice and care. Neuropsychologia, 45, 755–766. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.08.014.
  61. Royzman, E., & Baron, J. (2002). The preference of indirect harm. Social Justice Research, 15(2), 165–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ruby, P., & Decety, J. (2001). Effect of subjective perspective taking during simulation of action: a PET investigation of agency. Nature Neuroscience, 4(5), 546–550. doi: 10.1038/87510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Schaich Borg, J., Hynes, C., Van Horn, J., Grafton, S., & Sinnott-Armstrong, W. (2006). Consequences, action, and intention as factors in moral judgments: an FMRI investigation. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18(5), 803–817.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Schaich Borg, J., Lieberman, D., & Kiehl, K. A. (2008). Infection, incest, and iniquity: investigating the neural correlates of disgust and morality. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20(9), 1529–1546.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Schleim, S., Spranger, T. M., Erk, S., & Walter, H. (2011). From moral to legal judgment: the influence of normative context in lawyers and other academics. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 6(1), 48–57. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsq010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Sevinc, G., & Spreng, R. N. (2014). Contextual and perceptual brain processes underlying moral cognition: a quantitative meta-analysis of moral reasoning and moral emotions. PloS One, 9(2), e87427. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087427.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Shaver, K. G. (Ed.) (1985). The attribution of blame: Causality, responsibility, and blameworthiness. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  68. Shenhav, A., & Greene, J. D. (2010). Moral judgments recruit domain-general valuation mechanisms to integrate representations of probability and magnitude. Neuron, 67(4), 667–677. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2010.07.020.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Shenhav, A., & Greene, J. D. (2014). Integrative moral judgment: dissociating the roles of the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 34(13), 4741–4749. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3390-13.2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sokol, B. W., Chandler, M. J., & Jones, C. (2004). From mechanical to autonomous agency: the relationship between children’s moral judgments and their developing theories of mind. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 103, 19–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sommer, M., Rothmayr, C., Döhnel, K., Meinhardt, J., Schwerdtner, J., Sodian, B., & Hajak, G. (2010). How should I decide? The neural correlates of everyday moral reasoning. Neuropsychologia, 48(7), 2018–2026. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.03.023.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Takahashi, H., Yahata, N., Matsuda, T., Asai, K., & Okubo, Y. (2004). Brain activation associated with evaluative processes of guilt and embarassment: an fMRI study. NeuroImage, 23, 967–974.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Turiel, E., Killen, M., & Helwig, C. (1987). Morality: Its structure, functions, and vagaries. In J. Kagan, & S. Lamb (Eds.), The emergence of morality in young children (pp. 155–243). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  74. Vogeley, K., & Fink, G. R. (2003). Neural correlates of the first-person-perspective. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7(1), 38–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Wicker, B., Keysers, C., Plailly, J., Royet, J. P., Gallese, V., & Rizzolatti, G. (2003). Both of us disgusted in my insula: the common neural basis of seeing and feeling disgust. Neuron, 40, 655–664. doi: 10.1016/S0896-6273(03)00679-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Yeo, B. T., Krienen, F. M., Sepulcre, J., Sabuncu, M. R., Lashkari, D., Hollinshead, M., Roffman, J. L., Smoller, J. W., Zöllei, L., Polimeni, J. R., Fischl, B., Liu, H., & Buckner, R. L. (2011). The organization of the human cerebral cortex estimated by intrinsic functional connectivity. Journal of Neurophysiology, 106(3), 1125–1165. doi: 10.1152/jn.00338.2011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Yoder, K. J., & Decety, J. (2014). The good, the bad, and the just: justice sensitivity predicts neural response during moral evaluation of actions performed by others. The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 34(12), 4161–4166. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4648-13.2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Young, L., & Saxe, R. (2008). The neural basis of belief encoding and integration in moral judgment. NeuroImage, 40, 1912–1920. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.01.057.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Young, L., Camprodon, J. A., Hauser, M., Pascual-Leone, A., & Saxe, R. (2010). Disruption of the right temporoparietal junction with transcranial magnetic stimulation reduces the role of beliefs in moral judgments. Pnas, 107(15), 6753–6758. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0914826107.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Zahn, R., Moll, J., Paiva, M., Garrido, G., Krueger, F., Huey, E. D., et al. (2009). The neural basis of human social values: evidence from functional MRI. Cerebral Cortex, 19(2), 276–283.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Boccia
    • 1
    • 2
  • C. Dacquino
    • 3
  • L. Piccardi
    • 2
    • 4
  • P. Cordellieri
    • 1
  • C. Guariglia
    • 1
    • 2
  • F. Ferlazzo
    • 1
  • S. Ferracuti
    • 5
  • A. M. Giannini
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychology“Sapienza” UniversityRomeItaly
  2. 2.Neuropsychology UnitIRCCS Fondazione Santa LuciaRomeItaly
  3. 3.Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic and Orthopaedic Sciences“Sapienza” UniversityRomeItaly
  4. 4.Department of Life, Health and Environmental SciencesL’Aquila UniversityL’AquilaItaly
  5. 5.NESMOS Department“Sapienza” UniversityRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations