Neural correlates of emotion reappraisal in individuals with externalizing psychopathology
Externalizing psychopathology (EXT) is characterized by regulatory deficits of behavior, cognition, and negative emotion. Previous research on EXT suggests that cognitive and affective dysregulation are highly related, such that strong affective states constrain a reduced-capacity cognitive system. Reappraisal is an effective emotional control strategy involving complex interactions between cognitive and affective brain functions and may therefore offer novel insight into the specific neural mechanisms of affective dysregulation among individuals with EXT. To evaluate these possibilities, we tested individuals with low or high EXT in a reappraisal paradigm. Neuroimaging results indicated that EXT was associated with hypo-activation in the amygdala and superior parietal lobule during both maintenance and reappraisal as well as poor modulation of the lateral occipital cortex during negative emotion reappraisal. These results suggest a general disruption of perceptual-attentional resource allocation such that high EXT individuals are characterized by poor modulation of perceptual-attentional resources during reappraisal. Subsequently, emotion reappraisal may be a useful but not adequate tool to control negative affect in EXT.
KeywordsEmotion regulation Reappraisal Externalizing psychopathology
The authors wish to thank Andrew Jahn for technical and computer programming support, Fernando Munoz for assistance with data analysis, and Ben Pruce and Colleen McCracken for assistance with data collection.
Compliance with ethical standards
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Health and National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIH/NIAAA RO1 AA13650) to P.R.F., a National Institute on Drug Abuse training grant fellowship (NIDA T32 DA024628) to A.J.L, and by the Indiana METACyt Initiative of Indiana University, which was funded in part through a major grant from the Lilly Endowment, Inc.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Manual for the beck depression inventory-second edition (BDI-II). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
- Bucholz, K. K., Cadoret, R., Cloninger, C. R., Dinwiddie, S. H., Hesselbrock, V. M., Nurnberger, J. I., et al. (1994). A new, semi-structured psychiatric interview for use in genetic linkage studies: a report on the reliability of the SSAGA. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 55, 149–158.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Endres, M. J., Rickert, M. E., Bogg, T., Lucas, J., & Finn, P. R. (2011). Externalizing psychopathology and behavioral disinhibition: working memory mediates signal discriminability and reinforcement moderates response bias in approach–avoidance learning. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 120, 336–351.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, S. B. G. (1975). Manual of the eysenck personality questionnaire. London: Hodder and Stoughton.Google Scholar
- Lang, P. J., Bradley, M. M., & Cuthbert, B. N. (2008). International affective picture system (IAPS): Affective ratings of pictures and instruction manual. Technical Report A-8.Google Scholar
- MacCoon, D. G., Wallace, J. F., & Newman, J. P. (2004). Self-regulation: The context-appropriate allocation of attentional capacity to dominant and non-dominant cues. In R. F. Baumeister, & K. D. Vohs (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (pp. 422–446). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Newman, J. P., & Lorenz, A. R. (2003). Response modulation and emotion processing: Implications for psychopathy and other dysregulatory psychopathology. In R. J. Davidson, K. Scherer, & H. H. Goldsmith (Eds.), Handbook of affective sciences (pp. 904–929). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Ochsner, K. N., & Gross, J. J. (2014). The neural bases of emotion and emotion regulation: A valuation perspective. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 23–42). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., & Lushene, R. E. (1970). Manual for the state-trait anxiety inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists.Google Scholar