Advertisement

Brain Imaging and Behavior

, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 609–618 | Cite as

Gender and creativity: an overview of psychological and neuroscientific literature

  • Anna Abraham
Review Article

Abstract

The topic of gender differences in creativity is one that generates substantial scientific and public interest, but also courts considerable controversy. Owing to the heterogeneous nature of the findings associated with this line of research, the general picture often appears puzzling or obscure. This article presents a selective overview of psychological and neuroscientific literature that has a relevant bearing on the theme of gender and creativity. Topics that are explored include the definition and methods of assessing creativity, a summary of behavioral investigations on gender in relation to creativity, postulations that have been put forward to understand gender differences in creative achievement, gender-based differences in the structure and function of the brain, gender-related differences in behavioral performance on tasks of normative cognition, and neuroscientific studies of gender and creativity. The article ends with a detailed discussion of the idea that differences between men and women in creative cognition are best explained with reference to the gender-dependent adopted strategies or cognitive style when faced with generative tasks.

Keywords

Gender differences Sex differences Cognition and behavior Creative cognition Creative thinking Divergent thinking Neuroimaging Cognitive neuroscience Cognitive style Cognitive strategy Brain basis 

Notes

Conflict of Interest

Anna Abraham declares that she has no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Abraham, A. (2014). Creative thinking as orchestrated by semantic processing vs. cognitive control brain networks. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 95. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00095.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Abraham, A., & Windmann, S. (2007). Creative cognition: the diverse operations and the prospect of applying a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Methods (San Diego, Calif.), 42(1), 38–48. doi: 10.1016/j.ymeth.2006.12.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abraham, A., Pieritz, K., Thybusch, K., Rutter, B., Kröger, S., Schweckendiek, J., … Hermann, C. (2012). Creativity and the brain: uncovering the neural signature of conceptual expansion. Neuropsychologia, 50(8), 1906–1917. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2012.04.015.
  4. Abraham, A., Thybusch, K., Pieritz, K., & Hermann, C. (2014). Gender differences in creative thinking: behavioral and fMRI findings. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 8(1), 39–51. doi: 10.1007/s11682-013-9241-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Amabile, T. M. (1982). Social psychology of creativity: a consensual assessment technique. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43(5), 997–1013. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.43.5.997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Amabile, T. M. (1993). Motivational synergy: toward new conceptualizations of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in the workplace. Human Resource Management Review, 3(3), 185–201. doi: 10.1016/1053-4822(93)90012-S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arden, R., Chavez, R. S., Grazioplene, R., & Jung, R. E. (2010). Neuroimaging creativity: a psychometric view. Behavioural Brain Research, 214(2), 143–156. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2010.05.015.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Baer, J. (1997). Gender differences in the effects of anticipated evaluation on creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 10(1), 25–31. doi: 10.1207/s15326934crj1001_3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baer, J. (1998). Gender differences in the effects of extrinsic motivation on creativity*. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 32(1), 18–37. doi: 10.1002/j.2162-6057.1998.tb00804.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baer, J. (1999). Gender differences. In M. A. Runco, & S. Pritzker (Eds.), Encyclopedia of creativity. San Diego: Academic.Google Scholar
  11. Baer, J., & Kaufman, J. C. (2008). Gender differences in creativity. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 42(2), 75–105. doi: 10.1002/j.2162-6057.2008.tb01289.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Baker, F., Kennelly, J., & Tamplin, J. (2005). Themes within songs written by people with traumatic brain injury: gender differences. Journal of Music Therapy, 42(2), 111–122.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Baron-Cohen, S., Knickmeyer, R. C., & Belmonte, M. K. (2005). Sex differences in the brain: implications for explaining autism. Science, 310(5749), 819–823. doi: 10.1126/science.1115455.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bender, S. W., Nibbelink, B., Towner-Thyrum, E., & Vredenburg, D. (2013). Defining characteristics of creative women. Creativity Research Journal, 25(1), 38–47. doi: 10.1080/10400419.2013.752190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Binder, J. R., & Desai, R. H. (2011). The neurobiology of semantic memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15(11), 527–536. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2011.10.001.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Binder, J. R., Desai, R. H., Graves, W. W., & Conant, L. L. (2009). Where is the semantic system? A critical review and meta-analysis of 120 functional neuroimaging studies. Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y.: 1991), 19(12), 2767–2796. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhp055.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Bowden, E. M., & Jung-Beeman, M. (2003). Normative data for 144 compound remote associate problems. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers: A Journal of the Psychonomic Society, Inc, 35(4), 634–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bowden, E. M., & Jung-Beeman, M. (2007). Methods for investigating the neural components of insight. Methods (San Diego, Calif.), 42(1), 87–99. doi: 10.1016/j.ymeth.2006.11.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bunge, S. A. (2004). How we use rules to select actions: a review of evidence from cognitive neuroscience. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience, 4(4), 564–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cabeza, R., & St Jacques, P. (2007). Functional neuroimaging of autobiographical memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11(5), 219–227. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2007.02.005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cahill, L. (2006). Why sex matters for neuroscience. Nature Reviews. Neuroscience, 7(6), 477–484. doi: 10.1038/nrn1909.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cahill, L. (2014). Fundamental sex difference in human brain architecture. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(2), 577–578. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1320954111.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Carrel, L., & Willard, H. F. (2005). X-inactivation profile reveals extensive variability in X-linked gene expression in females. Nature, 434(7031), 400–404. doi: 10.1038/nature03479.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Carson, S. H., Peterson, J. B., & Higgins, D. M. (2005). Reliability, validity, and factor structure of the creative achievement questionnaire. Creativity Research Journal, 17(1), 37–50. doi: 10.1207/s15326934crj1701_4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chan, D. W. (2005). Self-perceived creativity, family hardiness, and emotional intelligence of Chinese gifted students in Hong Kong. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 16, 47–56.Google Scholar
  26. Cheung, P. C., & Lau, S. (2010). Gender differences in the creativity of Hong Kong school children: comparison by using the new electronic Wallach–kogan creativity tests. Creativity Research Journal, 22(2), 194–199. doi: 10.1080/10400419.2010.481522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cole, J. R., & Zuckerman, H. (1987). Marriage, motherhood and research performance in science. Scientific American, 256(2), 119–125.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Eliot, L. (2011). The trouble with sex differences. Neuron, 72(6), 895–898. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2011.12.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Fine, C. (2010). From scanner to sound bite issues in interpreting and reporting sex differences in the brain. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19(5), 280–283. doi: 10.1177/0963721410383248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fink, A., & Neubauer, A. C. (2006). EEG alpha oscillations during the performance of verbal creativity tasks: differential effects of sex and verbal intelligence. International Journal of Psychophysiology: Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology, 62(1), 46–53. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2006.01.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Flynn, J. R., & Rossi-Casé, L. (2011). Modern women match men on Raven’s progressive matrices. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(6), 799–803. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.12.035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Frith, C. D., & Frith, U. (2006). The neural basis of mentalizing. Neuron, 50(4), 531–534. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2006.05.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Gong, G., He, Y., & Evans, A. C. (2011). Brain connectivity: gender makes a difference. The Neuroscientist: A Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry, 17(5), 575–591. doi: 10.1177/1073858410386492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Halpern, D. F. (1989). The disappearance of cognitive gender differences: what you see depends on where you look. American Psychologist, 44(8), 1156–1158. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.44.8.1156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Halpern, D. F. (2011). Sex differences in cognitive abilities: 4th edition (4 ed.). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  36. Hartley, K. A., & Plucker, J. A. (2012). Creativity and intellectual styles. In L. Zhang, R. J. Sternberg, & S. Rayner (Eds.), Handbook of intellectual styles: Preferences in cognition, learning, and thinking (pp. 193–208). New York: Springer Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  37. He, W., & Wong, W. (2011). Gender differences in creative thinking revisited: findings from analysis of variability. Personality and Individual Differences, 51(7), 807–811. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2011.06.027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hein, G., & Knight, R. T. (2008). Superior temporal sulcus—it’s my area: or is it? Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20(12), 2125–2136. doi: 10.1162/jocn.2008.20148.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Hong, E., & Milgram, R. M. (2010). Creative thinking ability: domain generality and specificity. Creativity Research Journal, 22(3), 272–287. doi: 10.1080/10400419.2010.503535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Howieson, N. (1981). A longitudinal study of creativity — 1965–1975. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 15(2), 117–134. doi: 10.1002/j.2162-6057.1981.tb00284.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hugdahl, K., Thomsen, T., & Ersland, L. (2006). Sex differences in visuo-spatial processing: an fMRI study of mental rotation. Neuropsychologia, 44(9), 1575–1583. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.01.026.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Iijima, M., Arisaka, O., Minamoto, F., & Arai, Y. (2001). Sex differences in children’s free drawings: a study on girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Hormones and Behavior, 40(2), 99–104. doi: 10.1006/hbeh.2001.1670.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Ingalhalikar, M., Smith, A., Parker, D., Satterthwaite, T. D., Elliott, M. A., Ruparel, K., … Verma, R. (2014). Sex differences in the structural connectome of the human brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(2), 823–828. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1316909110.
  44. Joel, D., & Tarrasch, R. (2014). On the mis-presentation and misinterpretation of gender-related data: the case of Ingalhalikar’s human connectome study. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(6), E637. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1323319111.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Jordan, K., & Wüstenberg, T. (2010). The neural network of spatial cognition and its modulation by biological and environmental factors. Journal of Individual Differences, 31(2), 83–90. doi: 10.1027/1614-0001/a000015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jordan-Young, R. M. (2012). Hormones, context, and “brain gender”: a review of evidence from congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Social Science & Medicine, 74(11), 1738–1744. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.08.026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Karwowski, M., Lebuda, I., Wisniewska, E., & Gralewski, J. (2013). Big five personality traits as the predictors of creative self-efficacy and creative personal identity: does gender matter? The Journal of Creative Behavior, 47(3), 215–232. doi: 10.1002/jocb.32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kaufman, J. C. (2006). Self-reported differences in creativity by ethnicity and gender. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 20(8), 1065–1082. doi: 10.1002/acp.1255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kaufman, J. C., Plucker, J. A., & Baer, J. (2008). Essentials of creativity assessment (1 ed.). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  50. Kaufman, J. C., Baer, J., Agars, M. D., & Loomis, D. (2010). Creativity stereotypes and the consensual assessment technique. Creativity Research Journal, 22(2), 200–205. doi: 10.1080/10400419.2010.481529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kimura, D. (2000). Sex and cognition. Cambridge: A Bradford Book.Google Scholar
  52. Kozbelt, A., Beghetto, R. A., & Sternberg, R. J. (2010). Theories of creativity. In Handbook of creativity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Lentini, E., Kasahara, M., Arver, S., & Savic, I. (2013). Sex differences in the human brain and the impact of sex chromosomes and sex hormones. Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y.: 1991), 23(10), 2322–2336. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhs222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lin, W.-L., Hsu, K.-Y., Chen, H.-C., & Wang, J.-W. (2012). The relations of gender and personality traits on different creativities: a dual-process theory account. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 6(2), 112–123. doi: 10.1037/a0026241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lipp, I., Benedek, M., Fink, A., Koschutnig, K., Reishofer, G., Bergner, S., … Neubauer, A. (2012). Investigating neural efficiency in the visuo-spatial domain: an FMRI study. PloS One, 7(12), e51316. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051316
  56. Luders, E., & Toga, A. W. (2010). Sex differences in brain anatomy. Progress in Brain Research, 186, 3–12. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-53630-3.00001-4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Mar’i, S. K., & Karayanni, M. (1983). Creativity in Arab culture: two decades of research. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 16(4), 227–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. McCarthy, M. M., & Konkle, A. T. M. (2005). When is a sex difference not a sex difference? Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 26(2), 85–102. doi: 10.1016/j.yfrne.2005.06.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. McCarthy, M. M., Arnold, A. P., Ball, G. F., Blaustein, J. D., & De Vries, G. J. (2012). Sex differences in the brain: the not so inconvenient truth. The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 32(7), 2241–2247. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5372-11.2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Miller, A. L. (2007). Creativity and cognitive style: the relationship between field-dependence-independence, expected evaluation, and creative performance. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 1(4), 243–246. doi: 10.1037/1931-3896.1.4.243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Miller, D. I., & Halpern, D. F. (2013). The new science of cognitive sex differences. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2013.10.011.PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Moriguchi, Y., Touroutoglou, A., Dickerson, B. C., & Barrett, L. F. (2013). Sex differences in the neural correlates of affective experience. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. doi: 10.1093/scan/nst030.PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Noppe, L. D., & Gallagher, J. M. (1977). A cognitive style approach to creative thought. Journal of Personality Assessment, 41(1), 85–90. doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa4101_14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Northoff, G., Heinzel, A., de Greck, M., Bermpohl, F., Dobrowolny, H., & Panksepp, J. (2006). Self-referential processing in our brain–a meta-analysis of imaging studies on the self. NeuroImage, 31(1), 440–457. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.12.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Pagnani, A. R. (2011). Gender differences. In M. A. Runco & S. R. Pritzker (Eds.), Encyclopedia of creativity (Second Edition) (pp. 551–557). San Diego: Academic. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123750389001060.
  66. Piirto, J. (1991). Why are there so few (creative women: visual artists, mathematicians, musicians)? Roeper Review, 13(3), 142–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pink, D. H. (2011). Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us. New York: Riverhead Books.Google Scholar
  68. Pinker, S. (2009). The sexual paradox: Men, women and the real gender gap. New York: Scribner.Google Scholar
  69. Pinker, S., & Spelke, E. (2005). The science of gender and science: Pinker vs. Spelke, A Debate. Presented at the Mind Brain and Behavior Initiative (MBB), Harvard University. Retrieved from http://edge.org/3rd_culture/debate05/debate05_index.html.
  70. Price, C. J. (2010). The anatomy of language: a review of 100 fMRI studies published in 2009. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1191, 62–88. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05444.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Puccio, G. J., Wheeler, R. A., & Cassandro, V. J. (2004). Reactions to creative problem solving training: does cognitive style make a difference? The Journal of Creative Behavior, 38(3), 192–216. doi: 10.1002/j.2162-6057.2004.tb01240.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Razumnikova, O. M. (2004). Gender differences in hemispheric organization during divergent thinking: an EEG investigation in human subjects. Neuroscience Letters, 362(3), 193–195. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2004.02.066.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Rippon, G., Jordan-Young, R., Kaiser, A., & Fine, C. (2014). Recommendations for sex/gender neuroimaging research: key principles and implications for research design, analysis, and interpretation. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 650. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00650.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Rudebeck, P. H., & Murray, E. A. (2011). Balkanizing the primate orbitofrontal cortex: distinct subregions for comparing and contrasting values. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1239, 1–13. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06267.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Ruigrok, A. N. V., Salimi-Khorshidi, G., Lai, M.-C., Baron-Cohen, S., Lombardo, M. V., Tait, R. J., & Suckling, J. (2014). A meta-analysis of sex differences in human brain structure. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 39, 34–50. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.12.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Runco, M. A. (1986). Predicting children’s creative performance. Psychological Reports, 59(3), 1247–1254. doi: 10.2466/pr0.1986.59.3.1247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Runco, M. A., & Jaeger, G. J. (2012). The standard definition of creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 24(1), 92–96. doi: 10.1080/10400419.2012.650092.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Runco, M. A., & Pritzker, S. R. (Eds.). (2011). Encyclopedia of creativity, two-volume set, second edition (2 ed.). Boston: Academic.Google Scholar
  79. Runco, M. A., Cramond, B., & Pagnani, A. R. (2010). Gender and creativity. In J. C. Chrisler & D. R. McCreary (Eds.), Handbook of gender research in psychology (pp. 343–357). New York: Springer. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/content/r193k8872152l51k/abstract/.
  80. Ruth, J.-E., & Birren, J. E. (1985). Creativity in adulthood and old age: relations to intelligence, sex and mode of testing. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 8(1), 99–109. doi: 10.1177/016502548500800107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ryman, S. G., van den Heuvel, M. P., Yeo, R. A., Caprihan, A., Carrasco, J., Vakhtin, A. A., … Jung, R. E. (2014). Sex differences in the relationship between white matter connectivity and creativity. NeuroImage, 101, 380–389. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.07.027
  82. Sawyer, R. K. (2012). Explaining creativity: The science of human innovation (2 ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  83. Saxe, R., Carey, S., & Kanwisher, N. (2004). Understanding other minds: linking developmental psychology and functional neuroimaging. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 87–124. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.142044.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Sayed, E. M., & Mohamed, A. H. H. (2013). Gender differences in divergent thinking: use of the test of creative thinking-drawing production on an Egyptian sample. Creativity Research Journal, 25(2), 222–227. doi: 10.1080/10400419.2013.783760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Simonton, D. K. (1992). Gender and genius in Japan: feminine eminence in masculine culture. Sex Roles, 27(3–4), 101–119. doi: 10.1007/BF00290012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Simonton, D. K. (1994). Greatness: Who makes history and why. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  87. Simonton, D. K. (2012). Quantifying creativity: can measures span the spectrum? Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 14(1), 100–104.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. Spiers, H. J., & Maguire, E. A. (2007). The neuroscience of remote spatial memory: a tale of two cities. Neuroscience, 149(1), 7–27. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2007.06.056.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Stein, M. I. (1953). Creativity and culture. The Journal of Psychology, 36(2), 311–322. doi: 10.1080/00223980.1953.9712897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Stevens, J. S., & Hamann, S. (2012). Sex differences in brain activation to emotional stimuli: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies. Neuropsychologia, 50(7), 1578–1593. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2012.03.011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Stoltzfus, G., Nibbelink, B., Vredenburg, D., & Thyrum, E. (2011). Gender, gender role, and creativity. Social Behavior and Personality, 39(3), 425–432. doi: 10.2224/sbp.2011.39.3.425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Subotnik, R. F., & Arnold, K. D. (1994). Beyond Terman: contemporary longitudinal studies of giftedness and talent. Norwood: Praeger.Google Scholar
  93. Takeuchi, H., Taki, Y., Hashizume, H., Sassa, Y., Nagase, T., Nouchi, R., & Kawashima, R. (2012). The association between resting functional connectivity and creativity. Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y.: 1991), 22(12), 2921–2929. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhr371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Takeuchi, H., Taki, Y., Sekiguchi, A., Hashizume, H., Nouchi, R., Sassa, Y., … Kawashima, R. (2015). Mean diffusivity of globus pallidus associated with verbal creativity measured by divergent thinking and creativity-related temperaments in young healthy adults. Human Brain Mapping, 36(5), 1808–1827. doi: 10.1002/hbm.22739.
  95. Terman, L. M. (1916). The measurement of intelligence; an explanation of and a complete guide for the use of the Stanford revision and extension of the Binet-Simon intelligence scale. Boston: Houghton Mifflin company.Google Scholar
  96. Torrance, E. P. (1974). Torrance tests of creative thinking. Scholastic Testing Service, Inc.Google Scholar
  97. Torrance, E. P., & Haensly, P. A. (2003). Assessment of creativity in children and adolescents. In Handbook of psychological and educational assessment of children: Intelligence, aptitude, and achievement, Volume 1 (2nd ed., pp. 584–607). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  98. Volf, N. V., & Tarasova, I. B. (2013). The influence of reward on the performance of verbal creative tasks: behavioral and EEG effects. Human Physiology, 39(3), 302–308. doi: 10.1134/S0362119713020187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wallach, M. A., & Kogan, N. (1965). Modes of thinking in young children: a study of the creativity-intelligence distinction. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
  100. Wilson, D. C. (1970). Lone woman: the story of Elizabeth Blackwell, the first woman doctor. Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Social, Psychological & Communication SciencesLeeds Beckett UniversityLeedsUK

Personalised recommendations