Skip to main content

Variation of nutrient fluxes by rainfall redistribution processes in the forest canopy of an urban larch plantation in northeast China

Abstract

Atmospheric deposition (dry and wet deposition) is one of the primary sources of chemical inputs to terrestrial ecosystems and replenishes the nutrient pool in forest ecosystems. Precipitation often acts as a primary transporting agent and solvent; thus, nutrient cycles in forests are closely linked to hydrological processes. We collected precipitation data during a growing season to explore variations in nutrient cycling and nutrient balances in the rainfall redistribution process (wet deposition) in a larch plantation in northeast China. We measured nutrient (\({\mathrm{NO}}_{3}^{-}\), \({\mathrm{PO}}_{4}^{3-}\), Cl, K, Ca, Na, and Mg) inputs via bulk precipitation, throughfall and stemflow, and used a canopy budget model to estimate nutrient fluxes via canopy exchange. Our results suggest that the average concentrations of the base cation (K, Ca, Na, and Mg) showed the following order: stemflow > throughfall > bulk precipitation. Throughfall and stemflow chemistry dramatically fluctuated over the growing season when net fluxes (throughfall + stemflow—bulk precipitation) of \({\mathrm{NO}}_{3}^{-}\), \({\mathrm{PO}}_{4}^{3-}\), \({\mathrm{SO}}_{4}^{2-}\), Cl, K, Ca, Na, and Mg were − 6.676 kg·ha−1, − 1.094 kg·ha−1, − 2.371 kg·ha−1, 1.975 kg·ha−1, 0.470 kg·ha−1, − 5.202 kg·ha−1, − 0.336 kg·ha−1, and 1.397 kg·ha−1, respectively. These results suggest that \({\mathrm{NO}}_{3}^{-}\), \({\mathrm{PO}}_{4}^{3-}\), \({\mathrm{SO}}_{4}^{2-}\), Ca, and Na were retained, while Cl, K, and Mg were washed off by throughfall and stemflow.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  • Allan RP, Soden BJ (2008) Atmospheric warming and the amplification of precipitation extremes. Sci 321:1481–1484

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chuyong GB, Newbery DM, Songwe NC (2004) Rainfall input, throughfall and stemflow of nutrients in a central African rain forest dominated by ectomycorrhizal trees. Biogeochemistry 67:73–91

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Corti G, Agnelli A, Cocco S, Cardelli V, Masse J, Courchesne F (2019) Soil affects throughfall and stemflow under Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L.). Geoderma 333:43–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2018.07.010

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cortia G, Agnellib A, Coccoa S, Cardellia V, Massec J, Courchesned F (2019) Soil affects throughfall and stemflow under Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L.). Geoderma 333:43–56

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dawoe EK, Barnes VR, Oppong SK (2018) Spatio-temporal dynamics of gross rainfall partitioning and nutrient fluxes in shaded-cocoa (Theobroma cocoa) systems in a tropical semi-deciduous forest. Agroforest Syst 92:379–413

    Google Scholar 

  • Dovey SB, du Toit B, de Clercq W (2011) Nutrient fluxes in rainfall, throughfall and stemflow in Eucalyptus stands on the Zululand coastal plain. South Africa Southern Forests 73(3–4):193–206

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gong HD, Wang KY, Yang WQ (2005) Nutrient characteristics of throughfall and stemflow in three forests at the Subalpine of western Sichuan. Sci Silv Sin 41(5):14–20 (in Chinese with English abstract)

    Google Scholar 

  • Hamdan K, Schmidt M (2012) The influence of bigleaf maple on chemical properties of throughfall, stemflow, and forest floor in coniferous forest in the Pacific Northwest. Can J for Res 42(5):868–878

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hofhansl F, Wanek W, Drage S, Huber W, Weissenhofer A, Richtera A (2012) Controls of hydrochemical fluxes via stemflow in tropical lowland rainforests: Effects of meteorology and vegetation characteristics. J Hydrol 452:247–258

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Levia DF, Herwitz SR (2000) Physical properties of water in relation to stemflow leachate dynamics: Implications for nutrient cycling. Can J for Res 30(4):662–666

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liu WY, Fox JED, Xu ZF (2002) Nutrient Fluxes in Bulk Precipitation, Throughfall and Stemflow in Montane Subtropical Moist Forest on Ailao Mountains in Yunnan. South-West China J Trop Ecol 18(4):527–548

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liu X (2015) Study on precipitation hydro-chemical and nutrient import characteristics of Batula platyphylla secondery forests in north of Greater Xing’an mountains (Master thesis). Northeast Forestry Uuniversity, Harbin, pp 8–30

    Google Scholar 

  • Liu YL, Jiang L, You CM, Li H, Tan SY, Tan B, Yang WQ (2019) Base Cation Fluxes from the Stemflow in Three Mixed Plantations in the Rainy Zone of Western China. Forests 10(12):1101

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lu J, Zhang SX, Fang JP, Yan HA, Li JR (2017) Nutrient fluxes in rainfall, throughfall and stemflow in Pinus densata natural forest of Tibetan plateau. CLEAN-Soil Air Water 45(7):1600008

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lu XQ, Yang WX, Ding FJ, Toda H (2015) Reallocation and chemical characteristics of precipitation in a Maolan karst forest. Chin J Ecol 34(8):2115–2122 (in Chinese with English abstract)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dezzeo N, Chacón N (2006) Nutrient fluxes in incident rainfall, throughfall, and stemflow in adjacent primary and secondary forests of the Gran Sabana, southern Venezuela. For Ecol Manage 234(1–3):218–226

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rodrigo A, Avila A, Roda F (2003) The chemistry of precipitation, throughfall and stemflow in two holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) forests under a contrasted pollution environment in NE Spain. Scie Total Envir 305(1–3):195–205

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sheng HC, Cai TJ (2019) Influence of rainfall on canopy interception in mixed broad-leaved-Korean pine forest in Xiaoxing’an Mountains, northeastern China. Forests 10(3):248

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sheng HC, Cai TJ, Ju CY (2015) Element characteristics in the precipitation conversion process in Betula platyphlla forest of Xiaoxing’an Mountains, northeastern China. J Beijing for Univ 37(2):59–66 (in Chinese with English abstract)

    Google Scholar 

  • Su L, Zhao CM, Xu WT, Xie ZQ (2019) Hydrochemical fluxes in bulk precipitation, throughfall, and stemflow in a mixed evergreen and deciduous broadleaved forest. Forests 10:507

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sun XC, Zhang Z, Cao YB, Liu L, Hu FL, Lu XQ (2021) Canopy modification of base cations deposition in a subtropical broadleaved forest: Spatial characteristics, canopy budgets and acid neutralizing capacity. For Ecol Manage 482:118863

  • Tan SY, Zhao HR, Yang WQ, Tan B, Ni XY, Yue K, Zhang Y, Wu FZ (2018) The effect of canopy exchange on input of base cations in a subalpine spruce plantation during the growth season. Sci Rep 8(1):9373

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tan SY, Zhao HR, Yang WQ, Tan B, Yue K, Zhang Y, Wu FZ, Ni XY (2019) Forest canopy can efficiently filter trace metals in deposited precipitation in a subalpine spruce plantation. Forests 10(4):318

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Van Stan II JT, Levia Jr DF, Inamdar SP, Lepori-Bui M, Mitchell MJ (2012) The effects of phenoseason and storm characteristics on throughfall solute washoff and leaching dynamics from a temperate deciduous forest canopy. Sci Total Envir 430: 48-58

  • Van Stan II JT, Pypker TG (2015) A review and evaluation of forest canopy epiphyte roles in the partitioning and chemical alteration of precipitation. Sci Total Envir 536:813-824

  • Wang DZ, Nie LS, Li JY (2006) Transfer characteristics of nutrient elements through hydrological process of Pinus tabulaeformis stand in Beijing Xishan area. Acta Ecol Sin 26(7):2101–2107 (in Chinese with English abstract)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wen XL (2010) Research on hydrological effects of the Liquidambar formosana plantation system in suburb of Changsha city (Master thesis). Center South University of Forestry & Technology, Changsha, pp 21–47

    Google Scholar 

  • Wu JP, Su YX, Chen XZ, Liu LY, Sun CH, Zhang HO, Li Y, Ye YY, Zhou X, Yang J, Wang CY, Zhou GY, Huang NS (2019) Redistribution characteristics of atmospheric precipitation in different spatial levels of Guangzhou urban typical forests in southern China. Atmos Pollut Res 10(5):1404–1411

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wu XJ (2009) The study on hydrochemitry characteristic in the process of precipitation in the primitive Korean pine forest (Master thesis). Northeast Forestry Uuniversity, Harbin, pp 8–56

    Google Scholar 

  • Xin XB, Wang JS, Zhai MP (2004) A study on inputs of nutrients into Abies smithii forest ecosystem from precipitation in Sejila Mountain in Tibet. Sci Silv Sin 40(1):18–23 (in Chinese with English abstract)

    Google Scholar 

  • Xu XW, Yu XX, Mo L, Xu YS, Bao L, Lun XX (2019) Atmospheric particulate matter accumulation on trees: A comparison of boles, branches and leaves. J Clean Prod 226:349–356

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zabret K, Raj M (2019) Evaluating the influence of rain event characteristics on rainfall interception by urban trees using multiple correspondence analysis. Water 11(12):2659

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang N, Fan CN, Chen SY, Zheng JP, Guo ZL (2019) Effects of precipitation characteristics on the distribution of four metal elements by rainfalls in a secondary deciduous broad-leaved forest. J Nanjing for Univ (nat Sci Ed) 43(4):178–184 (in Chinese with English abstract)

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhang N, Qiao YN, Liu XZ, Chu GW, Zhang DQ, Yan JH (2010) Nutrient charateristics in incident rainfall, throughfall, and stemflow in monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest at Dinghushan. J Trop Subtrop Bot 18(5):502–510 (in Chinese with English abstract)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang SL, Liang CP (2012) Effect of a native forest canopy on rainfall chemistry in China’s Qinling Mountains. Environ Earth Sci 67:1503–1513

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang ZS, Zhao Y, Li XR, Huang L, Tan HJ (2016) Gross rainfall amount and maximum rainfall intensity in 60-minute influence on interception loss of shrubs: A 10-year observation in the Tengger Desert. Sci Rep 6:26030

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhao HR, Yang WQ, Wu FZ, Tan B (2017) Mixed forest plantations can efficiently filter rainfall deposits of sulfur and chlorine in Western China. Sci Rep 7:41680

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhu MG, Xue WL, Xu H, Gao Y, Chen SN, Li B, Zhang ZQ (2019) Diurnal and seasonal variations in soil respiration of four plantation forests in an urban park. Forests 10(6):513

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We gratefully acknowledge the Heilongjiang Mohe Forest Ecosystem National Observation and Research Station for its assistance in hydrochemical analysis of samples. The authors also gratefully acknowledge Liangliang Duan of Northeast Forestry University for his assistance with English language and grammatical editing of the manuscript.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Cunyong Ju or Tijiu Cai.

Additional information

Corresponding editor: Yu Lei.

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Project funding: This project was supported financially by the Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province of China (LH2020C032), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2572018BA10).

The online version is available at http://www.springerlink.com.

Corresponding editor: Yanbo Hu.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sheng, H., Guo, N., Ju, C. et al. Variation of nutrient fluxes by rainfall redistribution processes in the forest canopy of an urban larch plantation in northeast China. J. For. Res. 33, 1259–1269 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11676-021-01407-8

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11676-021-01407-8

Keywords

  • Rainfall redistribution
  • Aqueous fluxes
  • Water chemistry
  • Macronutrients input
  • Plantation forest
  • Harbin