Skip to main content
Log in

Population structure, age and growth rates of conifer species and their relation to environmental variables at Malam Jabba, Swat District, Pakistan

  • Original Paper
  • Published:
Journal of Forestry Research Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

This study focuses on age, growth rate and diameter distribution of pine forests in the Malam Jabba area, Swat District, Pakistan. Wood core samples were taken from twenty stands. Picea smithiana was the oldest at 234 years with a 112-cm diameter. Abies pindrow was 125 years with an 80-cm diameter while the oldest Pinus wallichiana was 122 years with 75-cm diameter. The fastest overall growth rate of 1.5 ± 0.1 year/cm was for P. wallichiana on a west-facing aspect, while the slowest 5.8 ± 2.6 year/cm growth was P. smithiana on an east-facing exposure. P. wallichiana and A. pindrow exhibited marked differences in growth rates over a 5-year period. The highest growth was by P. wallichiana from 1966 to 2006. A. pindrow showed less growth over the same years, such pattern simultaneously reverse from 1911 to 1965. The relationship between diameter and age, diameter and growth rate and age and growth rate were correlated. P. wallichiana and A. pindrow ages were correlated with diameter and growth rates. P. smithiana age was positive correlated with diameter. Generally, topographic and edaphic factors did not show significant correlations with growth rates, although some appreciable correlations were recorded. The growth of P. wallichiana was correlated with elevation while A. pindrow was correlated with maximum water retaining capacity. Diameter and age produced uneven size classes and many size gaps, which could be the result of anthropogenic disturbances.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Agren J, Zackrisson O (1990) Age and size structure of Pinus sylvestris populations on mires in central and northern Sweden. J Ecol 78:1049–1062

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ahmed M (1984) Ecological and dendrochronological studies on Agathis australis Salisb, Kauri. Ph.D thesis, University of Auckland, New Zealand, p 185

  • Ahmed M (1988) Plant communities of some northern temperate forests of Pakistan. Pak J For 20:33–40

    Google Scholar 

  • Ahmed M (2014) The science of tree rings: dendrochronology. Quid-e-Azam Writters Guild, Pakistan, p 302

  • Ahmed M, Ogden J (1987) Population Dynamics of the emergent conifer Agathis australis (D.Don) Lindl. (kauri) in New Zealand. N Z J Bot 25:231–242

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ahmed M, Sarangezai AM (1991) Dendrochronological approach to estimate age and growth rate of various species from Himalayan region of Pakistan. Pak J Bot 23:78–89

    Google Scholar 

  • Ahmed M, Sarangezai AM (1992) Dendrochronological potential of a few tree species from the Himalayan region of Pakistan. J Pure Appl Sci 11:65–72

    Google Scholar 

  • Ahmed M, Shaukat SS, Buzdar AA (1990a) Population structure and dynamics of Juniperus excelsa in Balouchistan, Pakistan. J Veg Sci 1:271–276

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ahmed M, Nagi EE, Wang ELM (1990b) Present state of Juniper in Rodhmallazi forest of Baluchistan, Pakistan. Pak J For 40(3):227–236

    Google Scholar 

  • Ahmed M, Wahab M, Khan N, Siddiqui MF, Khan MU, Hussain ST (2009) Age and growth rates of some Gymnosperms of Pakistan: a dendrochronological approach. Pak J Bot 41:849–860

    Google Scholar 

  • Ahmed M, Shaukat SS, Siddiqui MF (2011) A multivariate analysis of the vegetation of Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Don forest from Hindukush and Himalayan range of Pakistan: evaluating the structure and dynamics. Turk J Bot 35:419–438

    Google Scholar 

  • Akbar M. (2013). Forest Vegetation and Dendrochronology of Gilgit, Astore and Skardu Districts of Northern Areas (Gilgit Baltistan), Pakistan. Ph.D. dissertation. Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi

  • Aubert L (1960) Arid zone soils, study of their formation characteristics, utilization and conservation, in the problems of the Arid zone. UNESCO Publications, Paris, pp 115–137

    Google Scholar 

  • Bigler C, Veblen TT (2009) Increased early growth rates decrease longevities of conifers in subalpine forests. Oikos 118:1130–1138

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Block J, Treter U (2001) The limiting factors at the upper and lower forest limits in the mountain-woodland steppe of Northwest Mongolia. Joachim Block and Uwe Treter. In: Davos (eds) Proceedings of the international conference on tree rings and people. M. Kaennel Dobbertin, OU. Braker, pp 22–26

  • Bokhari TZ (2011) Study of pine tree rings for investigating past disturbance and some aspect of forest ecology in Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Ph.D. thesis. GC University, Lahore

  • Bokhari TZ, Ahmed M, Siddiqui MF, Khan ZU (2013) Forest communities of Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. FUUAST J Biol 3(1):137–145

    Google Scholar 

  • Currie DJ (1991) Energy and large scale patterns of animal and plant species richness. Am Nat 137:27–49

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • De Sherbinin A, Carr D, Cassels S, Jiang L (2007) Population and Environment. Annu Rev Environ Resour 32:345–373

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fritts HC (1976) Tree ring and climate. Academic Press, London

    Google Scholar 

  • Holmes RL (1983) Computer-assisted quality control in tree-ring dating and measurement. Tree Ring Bull 43:69–78

    Google Scholar 

  • Hussain A (2013) Phytosociology and dendrochronological study of Central Karakoram National Park, Northern Areas (Gilgit Baltistan), Pakistan. Ph.D. dissertation. Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi

  • Hussain F, Badshah L (1998) Vegetation structure of Pirghar hills, South Waziristan, Pakistan. J Trop Subtrop Bot 6:187–195

    Google Scholar 

  • Hussain SS, Qadir SA (1970) An Autecological study of Euphorbia caducifolia Hanies. Plant Ecol 25:329–380

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Iqbal J (2017) Phytosociology and dendrochronological investigation of Shangla pine forest of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Ph.D. dissertation. Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi

  • Jackson ML (1958) Soil chemical analysis. Prentice-Hall Inc, Englewood Cliffs, pp 214–221

    Google Scholar 

  • Karim B, Mukhtar A, Mukhtar H, Akhtar M (2009) Effect of canopy cover on the organic and inorganic content of soil in Cholistan Deseret. Pak J Bot 41:2387–2395

    Google Scholar 

  • Khan AH (1968) Ecopathological observation in Trarkhal forest. Part 1: regeneration status of the forest. Pak J For 18:169–228

    Google Scholar 

  • Khan N (2011) Vegetation ecology and Dendrochronology of Chitral. Ph.D thesis. Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi

  • Khan N (2012) A community analysis of Quercus baloot Griff, Forest, district Dir, Upper, Pakistan. Afr J Plant Sci 6:21–31

    Google Scholar 

  • Khan A (2017) Ecological and dendrochronological studies of pine forests at Indus Kohistan of KPK, Pakistan. Ph.D. dissertation. Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi

  • Khan A, Ahmed M, Siddiqui MF, Iqbal J, Gaire NP (2018) Dendrochronological potential of Abies pindrow Royal from Indus Kohistan, KPK, Pakistan. Pak J Bot 50(1):365–369

    Google Scholar 

  • Larson DW (2001) The paradox of great longevity in a short lived tree species. Exp Gerontol 36:651–673

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Malik MN, Rehman MJU, Hafiz M (1973) Characteristics of soil under Cedrus deodara: an interaction of litter, humus and minerals soil towards improvement of site quality. Pak J For 74–83

  • Ogden J (1980) Dendrochronology and dendroecology, an introduction. N Z J Ecol 3:154–156

    Google Scholar 

  • Ogden J (1981) Dendrochronological studies and the determination of tree ages in Australian tropies. J Biogeogr 8:405–420

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pederson N, Amato AWD, Orwig D A (2007) Natural history from dendrochronology: maximum ages and canopy persistence of rarely studied hardwood species. In: Proceedings of 15th central hardwood forest conference, US Department of Agriculture

  • Shaukat SS (1976) A phytosociological study of Gadap area, Southern Sindh, Pakistan. Pak J Bot 8:133–140

    Google Scholar 

  • Sheikh IS (1985) Afforestation in Juniper forests of Baluchistan. Forest Institute, Peshawar

    Google Scholar 

  • Siddiqui MF (2011) Community structure and dynamics of coniferous forests of moist temperate areas of Himalayan and Hindukush ranges of Pakistan. Ph.D. Thesis. Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi

  • Siddiqui MF, Shaukat SS, Ahmed M, Khan N, Khan IA (2013a) Vegetation-Environment relationship of moist temperate belt of Himalayan and Hindukush regions of Pakistan. Pak J Bot 45(2):577–592

    Google Scholar 

  • Siddiqui MF, Ahmed M, Shaukat SS, Khan N, Khan IA (2013b) Age and growth rates of dominant conifers from moist temperate areas of southern Himalayan and Hindukush region of Pakistan: evaluating the possible role of environmental characteristics. Pak J Bot 45(4):1135–1147

    Google Scholar 

  • Singh AP (1986) Seasonal fluctuation of organic matter with relation to moisture retention characteristics and availability of water in salt affected soil (India). Acta Bot Indic 14:73–76

    Google Scholar 

  • Speer JH, Clay K, Bishop G, Creech M (2010) The effect of periodical cicadas on growth of five tree species in midwestern deciduous forests. Am Midl Nat 164:173–186

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stokes MA, Smiley TL (1968) An introduction to tree-ring dating. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, p 68

    Google Scholar 

  • Swathi AS (1953) Note on the Juniper forest of Baluchistan. Unpublished report of BL FOR Dpt

  • Tareen RB, Qadir SA (2000) Phytosociology of Plains of diverse area ranging from Harani, Sinjawi to Duki Regions of Pakistan. J Biol Sci 3:2135–2144

    Google Scholar 

  • Wahab M (2011). Population dynamics and dendrochronological potential of pine tree species from District Dir. Ph.D. thesis. Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi

  • Wahab M, Ahmed M, Khan N (2008) Phytosociology of some pine forests from Afghanistan. Pak J Bot 40(30):1071–1079

    Google Scholar 

  • Zar JH (2009) Biostatistical analysis. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, p 158

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We gratefully acknowledge the direction, input and valuable suggestions of Dr. Qiang Li, Associate Professor, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. 97, Yanxiang Road, Yanta District, Xi’an 710061, China) during the preparation of this manuscript. We also remain grateful to Dr. Javed Iqbal and Dr. Abdul Wahab for their immense support during field sampling.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Arsalan.

Additional information

The online version is available at http://www.springerlink.com

Corresponding editor: Chai Ruihai.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Arsalan, Siddiqui, M.F., Ahmed, M. et al. Population structure, age and growth rates of conifer species and their relation to environmental variables at Malam Jabba, Swat District, Pakistan. J. For. Res. 31, 429–441 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11676-018-0820-5

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11676-018-0820-5

Keywords

Navigation