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Early recovery process and restoration planning of burned pine forests in central eastern Korea

  • Ji Hong An
  • Chi Hong Lim
  • Yong Chan Cho
  • Chang Seok Lee
Original Paper

Abstract

In central eastern Korea, there has been a continued effort to sustain pine forests because of their value for wood and mushroom production, as well as for other resources. Through the analysis of previously burned areas, we clarified the effects of fire on vegetation dynamics of pine forests by measuring changes in species composition, population structure, and the growth rates of major tree species. Vegetation analysis was conducted on a series of 100 m2 plots established in Korean red pine (Pinus densiflora Siebold. & Zucc.) and Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica Fisch. Ex Ledeb.) forests situated in three different topographic positions on slopes where fire severity varied. We confirmed that most pine trees will succumb to even a surface fire, whereas oak may be killed following high intensity or infrequent fires but will sprout and become dominant. Complete protection from fire favors other, more shade-tolerant deciduous hardwoods. Different restoration plans apply, based on observed vegetation responses for each topographic zone. Near the ridge top, where pine seed sources are most limited, it may be necessary to restore pine forests by planting and to control competing shrubs and herbs. At the mountain foot, where exotic species and species modified by hybridization have invaded aggressively, restoration that involves the introduction of natural vegetation is required. Mid-slope sites, where pine has been replaced by natural vegetation dominated by Mongolian oak, do not require any form of restorative treatment.

Keywords

Vegetation succession Vegetation type Fire severity Fire disturbance Landscape structure 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Dr. Kermit Cromack J., Department of Forest Science at Oregon State University, for his helpful comments on this manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ji Hong An
    • 1
  • Chi Hong Lim
    • 1
  • Yong Chan Cho
    • 2
  • Chang Seok Lee
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Bio and Environmental TechnologySeoul Women’s UniversitySeoulKorea
  2. 2.Division of Plant ConservationKorea National ArboretumPocheonKorea

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