XPS and FTIR studies of fungus-stained Daemonorops margaritae

  • Wenhua Lyu
  • Yuan Shi
  • Yaxian Zheng
  • Xing’e Liu
Original Paper


We explored the discoloration of rattan cane using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). XPS analysis showed that after the cane was stained by Lasiodiplodia theobromae, carbon and oxygen elements and the ratio of oxygen to carbon decreased. Considering atomic binding, C1 and C4 contents increased, while C2 and C3 contents decreased, and the ratio of O2 to O1 decreased sharply. The relative contents of lignin, cellulose and polysaccharides increased and new substances with low O2/O1 ratio occurred. FTIR analysis showed that the absorption peaks of O–H at 3346 cm−1, aliphatic C–H at 2921, 2853 and 1464 cm−1, and C=O at 1723 cm−1, were characteristic peaks of fungal melanin intensified, indicating that cane discoloration was primarily caused by fungal melanin. The absorption peaks characterizing cellulose and lignin like polysaccharides at 800 cm−1, C–H at 1374 cm−1, C–O at 1058 and 1038 cm−1, phenolic hydroxyl at 1245 cm−1, aromatic ether bonds at 1270 cm−1, carbon skeleton at 1608 cm−1 and benzene ring at 1500 cm−1 were enhanced since the fungus mainly consumed the extractives in cane cell lumens and the main composition content increased relatively. Regardless of the discoloration caused by natural fungi or inoculated fungi, the discoloring feature and composition changes were identical except that the fungus-inoculated cane had more melanin.


Rattan cane Fungal stain Fungal melanin FTIR XPS 


  1. Abasolo WP, Yoshida M, Yamamoto H (2003) Thermal softening of rattan canes: influence of the hemi cellulose-lignin matrix. World Bamboo Rattan 1(4):32–36Google Scholar
  2. Amardeep SS, Jose SM (2013) Biosorption of uranium by melanin: kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies. J Bioresour Technol 149:155–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barry AO, Koran Z, Kaliaguine S (1990) Surface analysis by ESCA of sulfite post-treated CTMP. J Appl Polym Sci 39(1):31–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ed DJ, Richard PC, John NS (1997) Effects of a fungal treatment on the brightness and strength properties of a mechanical pulp from Douglas-fir. Bioresour Technol 61(1):61–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Jiang ZH (2007) Bamboo and rattan in the world. China Forestry Publishing House, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  6. Jiang ZH, Lv WH, Ren HQ, Fei BH, Wu YZ (2007) Review on rattan cane properties. World For Res 20(4):35–40Google Scholar
  7. Ju XH, Mark E, Zhang X (2013) An advanced understanding of the specific effects of xylan and surface lignin contents on enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. Bioresour Technol 132:137–145CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Lü WH, Xiao SQ, Mu QY (2002) Main causes of Betula alnoides wood’s discoloration. J Beijing For Univ 24(4):107–110Google Scholar
  9. Lü WH, Jiang ZH, Wu YZ (2009) Basic components and chemical properties of the cane of Daemonorops margaritae. Sci Silvae Sin 45(7):96–100Google Scholar
  10. Lü WH, Liu XE, Liu JL (2011) Fungal staining of Daemonorops margaritae canes. Sci Silvae Sin 47(8):196–200Google Scholar
  11. Lü WH, Jiang ZH, Liu XE, Liu JL (2013) Causes and removal of Daemonorops margaritae cane’s discoloration. Adv Mater Res 634–638:909–912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ozen E, Yeniocak M, Goktas O, Alma HM, Yilmaz F (2014) Antimicrobial and antifungal properties of madder root (Rubia tinctorum) colorant used as an environmentally-friendly wood preservative. Bioresources 9(2):1998–2009Google Scholar
  13. Peters CM, Thammavong B, Mekaloun B, Phearoom N, Ratanak O, Ledecq T (2013) Growth of wild rattans in Cambodia and Laos: implications for management. For Ecol Manag 306:23–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Sernek M, Kamke FA, Glasser WG (2004) Comparative analysis of inactivated wood surfaces. Holzforschung 58(1):22–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Shi BZ, Wang WH (1992) ESR analysis of fungus stained-wood. Sci Silvae Sin 28(4):330–335Google Scholar
  16. Sinn G, Gindl M, Reiterer A, Tschegg SS (2004) Changes in the surface properties of wood due to sanding. Holzforschung 58(3):246–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Wang XQ, Fei BH, Ren HQ (2009) FTIR spectroscopic studies of the photo-discoloration of Chinese Fir. Spectrosc Spectr Anal 29(5):1272–1275Google Scholar
  18. Widayati AJ, Samantha CB (2010) Accessibility factors and conservation forest designation affecting rattan cane harvesting in Lambusango Forest, Buton, Indonesia. Hum Ecol 38(6):731–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Zheng L, Wu XQ (2007) Advances on infection structures of plant pathogenic fungi. J Nanjing For Univ Nat Sci 31(1):90–94Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wenhua Lyu
    • 1
  • Yuan Shi
    • 1
  • Yaxian Zheng
    • 1
  • Xing’e Liu
    • 2
  1. 1.Research Institute of Wood IndustryChinese Academy of ForestryBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.International Centre for Bamboo and RattanBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations