Tree growth performance and estimation of wood quality in plantation trials for Maesopsis eminii and Shorea spp.

  • Lina Karlinasari
  • Suhada Andini
  • Descarlo Worabai
  • Prijanto Pamungkas
  • Sri Wilarso Budi
  • Iskandar Z. Siregar
Original Paper


Plantations of tropical species are becoming an increasingly important source of wood. However, it is important that research trials focus not only on tree growth performance, but also on wood quality. The aims of this study were to assess the growth performance of six commercially and ecologically important tree species from separate plantation trials in Indonesia and to determine the relationships between tree growth and wood quality in terms of the dynamic modulus of elasticity (MOE) and wood density. Forty-eight 7-year Maesopsis eminii Engl. and thirty-five 9-year specimens (7 each of 5 Shorea spp.) were selected from two trials. The MOE, based on acoustic velocity, was indirectly measured to evaluate wood stiffness. Tree-growth performance was evaluated, and correlations between growth traits and acoustic velocity as well as density and wood stiffness properties were estimated. The growth performance of M. eminii in terms of tree volume was significantly different in three different categories of growth (i.e. fast, medium, slow). Of the five Shorea spp. studied, Shorea leprosula Miq. had the highest growth rate, as expected since it is known to be a fast-growing Shorea species. Indirect measurement of wood quality by means of non-destructive ultrasonic methods showed a weak negative correlation between tree volume and acoustic velocity and dynamic MOE. Although each fast-growing tree could reach a merchantable size faster than other varieties or species, wood traits of various species tested were not significantly different based on tree growth rate performance. The findings from this study could be used to improve selection criteria in future breeding trials; indirect measurements of the dynamic modulus of elasticity can be used in mass pre-selection of genetic materials, to choose the most-promising material for in-depth evaluation.


Dynamic MOE Non-destructive test Selection criteria Tree growth Wood quality Maesopsis eminii Shorea spp. 


  1. Ashton MS (1998) Seedling ecology of mixed-dipterocarp forest. In: Appanah S, Turnbull JS (eds) A review of dipterocaps: taxonomy, ecology, and silviculture. Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), BogorGoogle Scholar
  2. Baar J, Tippnerb J, Rademacherc P (2015) Prediction of mechanical properties—modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity—of five tropical species by nondestructive methods. Maderas Cienc y Tecnol 17:239–252Google Scholar
  3. Bucur V (2006) Acoustics of wood. Springer series in wood science. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Chauhan S, Kumar ANA (2014) Assessment of variability in morphological and wood quality traits in Melia dubia Cav. for selection of superior trees. J Indian Acad Wood Sci 11:25–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chauhan SS, Walker JCF (2006) Variations in acoustic velocity and density with age, and their interrelationships in radiata pine. For Ecol Manag 229:388–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cherry ML, Vikram V, Briggs D, Cress DW, Howe GT (2008) Genetic variation in direct and indirect measures of wood stiffness in coastal Douglas-fir. Can J For Res 38:2476–2485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chiu CH, Lin CH, Yang H (2013) Application of nondestructive methods to evaluate mechanical properties of 32-year-old Taiwan incense cedar (Calocedrus formosana) wood. BioResources 8:688–700Google Scholar
  8. Dzbeński D, Wiktorski T (2007) Ultrasonic evaluation of mechanical properties of wood in standing trees. In: COST E 53 conference—quality control for wood and wood products, Warsaw, 15–17 Oct 2007Google Scholar
  9. Evans J (1992) Plantation forestry in the tropics, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Faculty of Forestry (2005) Establishment of an ex situ conservation area and domestication of Shorea spp. and Calamus spp. Final Report ASEAN-EU University Network Programme: Conservation and Sustainable Utilization of Plant Genetic in SE-Asia, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  11. Fleury SG, Blanc L, Picard N, Sist P, Dick J, Nasi R, Swaine MD, Forni E (2005) Grouping species for predicting mixed tropical forest dynamics: looking for a strategy. Ann For Sci 62:785–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hanum IF, Maesen LJGVD (1997) Prosea plant resources of south-east Asia 11: auxiliary plants. Prosea Foundation, BogorGoogle Scholar
  13. Hong Z, Fries A, Wu HX (2014) High negative correlations between growth traits and wood properties suggest incorporating multiple traits selection including economic weight for the future Scots pine breeding programs. Ann For Sci 71:463–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Horvath B, Peralta P, Peszlen I, Divos F, Kasal B, Li L (2010) Elastic modulus of transgenic aspen. Wood Res 55:1–10Google Scholar
  15. Howe GT, Jayawickrama KJ, Cherry ML, Johnson GR, Wheeler NC (2006) Breeding Douglas-fir. Plant Breed Rev 27:245–353Google Scholar
  16. Johnson GR, Gartner BL (2006) Genetic variation in basic density and modulus of elasticity of coastal Douglas-fir. Tree Genet Genomes 3:25–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kang K-S, Son S-G (2012) Growth performances of 100 open-pollinated families in an early test of Maesopsis eminii in west Java, Indonesia. For Sci Technol 8:173–178Google Scholar
  18. Karlinasari L, Surjokusumo S, Hadi YS, Nugroho N (2005) Nondestructive testing on six tropical woods using ultrasonic method. In: Dwianto W (ed) Towards ecology and economy harmonization of tropical forest resources. Proceedings of the 6th international wood science symposium. Research & development Unit for Biomaterials Indonesian Institute of Science, Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Bali, Indonesia, 28–31 Aug 2005, pp 109–116Google Scholar
  19. Karlinasari L, Wahyuna ME, Nugroho N (2008) Non-destructive ultrasonic testing method for determining bending strength properties of gmelina wood (Gmelina arborea Roxb). J Trop For Sci 20:99–104Google Scholar
  20. Kasal B, Peszlen I, Peralta P, Li L (2007) Preliminary tests to evaluate the mechanical properties of young trees with small diameter. Holzforschung 61:390–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lenz P, Auty D, Achim A, Beaulieu J, Mackay J (2013) Genetic improvement of white spruce mechanical wood traits-Early screening by means of acoustic velocity. Forests 4:575–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Millet J, Tran N, Vien Ngoc N, Tran Thi T et al (2013) Enrichment planting of native species for biodiversity conservation in a logged tree plantation in Vietnam. New For 44:369–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mochan S, Moore J, Conolly T (2009) Using acoustic tools in forestry and the wood supply chain. Forestry Commission Technical Note FCTN018.$FILE/FCTN018.pdf. Accessed 15 Dec 2015
  24. Moore JR, Lyon AJ, Searles GJ, Vihermaa LE (2009) The effects of site and stand factors on the tree and wood quality of sitka spruce growing in the United Kingdom. Silva Fenn 43:383–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nguyen H, Firn J, Lamb D, Herbohn J (2014) Wood density: a tool to find complementary species for the design of mixed species plantations. For Ecol Manag 334:106–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Oliveira FGR, Sale A (2006) Relationship between density and ultrasonic velocity in Brazilian tropical woods. Bioresour Technol 97:2443–2446CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Oliveira FGR, de Campos JAO, Sale A (2002) Ultrasonic measurements in Brazilian hardwoods. Mater Res J 5:51–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Philipson CD (2009) Plant growth analysis of Bornean Dipterocarpaceae seedlings. Ph.D. Dissertation, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Zürich, ZürichGoogle Scholar
  29. Phillips PD, Yasman I, Brash TE, Gardingen PR (2002) Grouping tree species for analysis of forest data in Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo). For Ecol Manag 157:205–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pinard MA, Davidson GW, Daning A (1998) Effects of trenching on growth and survival of planted Shorea parvifolia seedlings under pioneer stands in a logged-over forest. Trop For Sci 10:505–515Google Scholar
  31. Schwarzwaller W, Chai FYC, Hahn-Schilling B (1999) Growth characteristics and response to illumination of some shorea species in the logged-over mixed dipterocarp forest of Sarawak, Malaysia. J Trop For Sci 11:554–569Google Scholar
  32. Seng OD (1990) Berat jenis dari jenis-jenis kayu Indonesia dan pengertian beratnya kayu untuk keperluan praktek [Specific gravity of Indonesian woods and its significance for practical use). Departemen Kehutanan Pengumuman nr. 13, Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan, Bogor, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  33. Sheikh Ali IB (2006) A manual of enrichment planting in logged-over forests in Peninsular Malaysia: Malaysian-ITTO Project on sustainable forest management and development in Peninsular Malaysia: PD 185/91 Rev. 2(F) Phase 11, Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
  34. Shono K, Davies SJ, Chua YK (2007) Performance of 45 native tree species on degraded lands in Singapore. J Trop For Sci 19:25–34Google Scholar
  35. Slik JWF (2006) Estimating species-specific wood density from the genus average in Indonesian trees. J Trop Ecol 22:481–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sukendro A, Sugiarto E (2012) The growth response of saplings Shorea leprosula Miq, Shorea mecistopteryx Ridley, Shorea ovalis (Korth) Blume and Shorea selanica (Dc) Blume toward sunlight intensity level. J Silvikultur Trop 3:22–27 (in Indonsian) Google Scholar
  37. Suzuki E (1999) Diversity in specific gravity and water content of wood among Borneon tropical rainforest trees. Ecol Res 11:211–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Teles RF, Del Menezzi CS, de Souza F, de Souza MR (2011) Nondestructive evaluation of a tropical hardwood: interrelationship between methods and physical-acoustical variables. Ciência da Madeira Pelotas 2:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Urhan OS, Kolpak SE, Jayawickrama KJS, Howe GT (2014) Early genetic selection for wood stiffness in juvenile Douglas-fir and western hemlock. For Ecol Manag 320:104–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Vikram V, Cherry ML, Briggs D, Cress DW, Evans R, Howe GT (2011) Stiffness of Douglas-fir lumber: effects of wood properties and genetics. Can J For Res 41:1160–1173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wang X, Ross RJ, McClellan M, Barbour RJ, Erickson JR, Forsman JW, McGinnis GD (2001) Nondestructive evaluation of standing trees with a stress wave method. Wood Fiber Sci 33:522–533Google Scholar
  42. Widiyatno, Purnomo S, Soekotjo, Naiem M, Hardiwinoto S, Kasmujiono (2013) The growth of selected Shorea spp. in secondary tropical rain forest: the effect of silviculture treatment to improve growth quality of Shorea spp. Procedia Environ Sci 17:160–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Widiyatno Soekotjo, Naiem M, Purnomo S, Setiyanto PE (2014) Early performance of 23 Dipterocarp species planted in logged-over rainforest. J Trop For Sci 26:259–266Google Scholar
  44. Zulfahmi (2007) Genetic variation assessment of Maesopsis eminii using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker. In: Nam SH (ed) Seed sources technology development for land and forest rehabilitation. RSSNC (Rumpin Seed Source and Nursery Center), BogorGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lina Karlinasari
    • 1
  • Suhada Andini
    • 2
  • Descarlo Worabai
    • 2
  • Prijanto Pamungkas
    • 3
  • Sri Wilarso Budi
    • 3
  • Iskandar Z. Siregar
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Forest Products, Faculty of ForestryBogor Agricultural University (IPB)BogorIndonesia
  2. 2.Alumnus Department of Silviculture, Faculty of ForestryBogor Agricultural University (IPB)BogorIndonesia
  3. 3.Department of Silviculture, Faculty of ForestryBogor Agricultural University (IPB)BogorIndonesia

Personalised recommendations