Journal of Forestry Research

, Volume 29, Issue 1, pp 139–150 | Cite as

Analysis of temporal changes in land cover and landscape metrics of a managed forest in the west Black Sea region of northern Turkey: 1970–2010

  • Hayati ZenginEmail author
  • Ahmet Salih Değermenci
  • Pete Bettinger
Original Paper


Forest structure changes continuously by natural and anthropogenic effects. Because the level of goods and services provided by forest ecosystems are related to this structure, some attributes have to be controlled while they are being managed. In this paper we describe the long-term temporal changes in land area and landscape metrics related to different land uses of a managed forest in Turkey. The study was carried out for the Daday Forest Planning Unit located in the west Black Sea region of northern Turkey. The total area is 16,813 ha and besides wood production, it is managed for erosion control, public health, aesthetics, and recreation. Stand type maps that were constructed in 1970, 1989, 1999, and 2010 were used in this analysis. Transition matrixes that illustrate area changes among cover types and temporal changes on some landscape metrics were obtained using Geographic Information Systems. Stands were separated into small patches, and thus the number of patches increased nearly two-fold between 1970 and 2010. The total forest edge increased and through the associated fragmentation, the amount of core forest area decreased at the landscape scale. Landscape metrics were applied to digitized versions of historical maps to assess how forest area changed. Human use of the land has changed, forest management practices have evolved, and these along with natural forest growth have contributed to interesting changes in landscape character.


Landscape metrics Land cover change Temporal change Turkey 


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Copyright information

© Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hayati Zengin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ahmet Salih Değermenci
    • 1
  • Pete Bettinger
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Forest Management and Planning, Faculty of ForestryDuzce UniversityDuzceTurkey
  2. 2.Warnell School of Forestry and Natural ResourcesUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA

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