Journal of Forestry Research

, Volume 28, Issue 2, pp 411–417 | Cite as

Analyzing dynamic curve widening on forest roads

  • Mustafa AkgulEmail author
  • Murat Demir
  • Abdullah E. Akay
Original Paper


Forest roads require important design specifications to ensure all-season access for various vehicles. Long and heavy log trucks can face serious maneuvering problems on forest roads due to insufficient amount of area to the left for road widening on horizontal curves. In order to provide safe and continuous shipment and transportation, appropriate curve widening areas should be provided for long vehicles along horizontal curves. In this study, a statistical model was developed to provide curve-widening solutions for long trucks (e.g., those with 18 wheels) considering various curve radius and deflection angles. The dynamic curve widening feature of Plateia 2013 program was employed to calculate curve widening for the specified vehicle. During the solution process, nine different horizontal curve diameters from 10 to 50 m (by 5 m intervals) and 17 different deflection angles from 90° to 170° (by 5° intervals) were evaluated to run horizontal curve-widening analysis. Using a multiple regression model, we made suitable predictions about curve widening. The curve-widening areas decrease as the horizontal curve radius increases, while increasing the deflection angle on horizontal curves increases curve widening areas. Clearly, the computer-based dynamic curve widening model developed in this study can be effectively used in determining optimum widening for horizontal curves by evaluating the number of alternatives that fit geometrical specifications and vehicle types.


Forest roads Log trucks Curve widening area Dynamic driving analysis 

Supplementary material

11676_2016_316_MOESM1_ESM.docx (106 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 106 kb)


  1. Abeli WS, Meiludie O, Kachwele R (2000) Road alignment and gradient issues in the maintenance of logging roads in Tanzania. Int J For Eng 11:22–29Google Scholar
  2. Akay AE (2006) Minimizing total costs of forest roads with computer-aided design model. Sadhana 31(5):621–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akay AE, Sessions J (2005) Applying the decision support system, TRACER, to forest road design. West J Appl For 20(3):184–191Google Scholar
  4. Akay AE, Wing MG, Sessions J (2014) Estimating sediment reduction cost for low-volume forest roads using a LiDAR-derived high-resolution DEM. Balt J Road Bridge Eng 9(1):52–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Akgul M, Esin AI, Ozmen M (2012) Planing of forest roads with dynamic modeling CAD programs, KSU J. Enginering Sci., Special Issue, pp 115–121Google Scholar
  6. Akgul M, Demir M, Ozturk T, Topatan H, Budak YE (2016) Investigation of recreational vehicles maneuverability on forest roads by computer-aided driving analysis. Balt J Road Bridge Eng 11(2):111–119. doi: 10.3846/bjrbe.2016.13 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Altunel AO (2006) Entegration of forestry application with geopraphic information systems. Istanbul University, Unpublished Phd thesis, IstanbulGoogle Scholar
  8. Aruga K (2005) Tabu search optimization of horizontal and vertical alignments of forest roads. J For Res 10(4):275–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Aruga K, Chung W, Akay AE, Sessions J, Miyata E (2007) Incorporating soil surface erosion prediction into forest road alignment optimization. Int J For Eng 18(1):24–32Google Scholar
  10. Bayoğlu S (1997) Orman transport tesis ve taşitlari, İ.Ü. Orman Fakültesi, İstanbul, 975-404-430-9Google Scholar
  11. Bugday E, Menemencioglu K (2014) Assessment of existing forest road standards conformity for stumpage sale in Turkey. 2nd Mediterranean forest and environment symposium. 22–24 October, Isparta, Turkey. pp 300–308Google Scholar
  12. Cox R (1998) A review of the effect of increases in vehicle size on Australian geometric road design standards. In: Proc., 5th Int. symp. on heavy vehicle weights and dimensions, vol 3Google Scholar
  13. Dasdemir I (2011) Evaluations on implementations of stumpage sales. J Bartın Fac For 13(20):71–79Google Scholar
  14. Demir M (2007) Impacts, management and functional planning criterion of forest road network system in Turkey. Transp Res Part A 41:56–68Google Scholar
  15. Easa SM, Mehmood A (2008) Optimizing design of highway horizontal alignments: new substantive safety approach. Computer-Aided Civil Infrastruct Eng 23(7):560–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gümüş S (2003) Functional based forest road network planning with geographic information system, Phd thesis, KTU University, TrabzonGoogle Scholar
  17. Harkey DL, Council FM, Zegeer CV (1996) Operational characteristics of longer combination vehicles and related geometric design issues. Transp Res Rec 1523(1):22–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kramer BW (2001) Forest road contracting, construction, and maintenance for small forest woodland owners. Oregon State University, College of Forestry, Forest Research Laboratory, CorvallisGoogle Scholar
  19. Murray TA (1998) Rout Planning for Harvest Site Access. Can J For Res 28(7):1084–1087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. OGM (2008) Orman yollari planlamasi, yapimi ve bakimi-tebliğ No:292. OGM İnşaat ve İkmal Dairesi Başkanlığı, AnkaraGoogle Scholar
  21. Parsakhoo A, Hosseini SA (2009) Formulation of the truck selection process for secondary transportation in Hyrcanian Forests. World Appl Sci J 6(2):283–288Google Scholar
  22. Sessions J, Boston K, Wing MG, Akay AE, Theisen P, Heinrich R (2007) Forest road operations in the tropics. Edited by Sessions, J. Springer, Berlin, p 170, ISBN 978-3-540-46392-4Google Scholar
  23. Vatandaşlar C, Demir M (2016) Opportunities of forest roads usage as emergency access road for natural disaster. J Fac For Istanb Univ 66(2):369–378. doi: 10.17099/jffiu.63832 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Forest Engineering Division, Faculty of Forestry, Forest Construction and TransportationIstanbul UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Forest Engineering Department, Faculty of ForestryBursa Technical UniversityBursaTurkey

Personalised recommendations